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Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Evolution and Diversity of Plants.

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Presentation on theme: "Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Evolution and Diversity of Plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Evolution and Diversity of Plants

2 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Outline Evolutionary History Alternation of Generations Nonvascular Plants Vascular Plants – Seedless – Seed – Angiosperms  Monocots and Dicots  Flowers

3 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Evolutionary History of Plants Plants are thought to have evolved from freshwater algae over 500 million years ago. Marked by four evolutionary events associated with four major groups of plants…..

4 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Evolutionary History of Plants – Nonvascular Plants  nourishment of a multicellular embryo within the body of the female plant. – Seedless Vascular Plants  Advent of vascular tissue. – Gymnosperms and Angiosperms  Produce seeds. – Flowering Plants  Attract pollinators that give rise to fruits.

5 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Alternation of Generations All plants have a life cycle that includes an alternation of generations. – Two multicellular individuals alternate, each producing the other.  Sporophyte = diploid generation.  Gametophyte = haploid generation.

6 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Alternation of Generations

7 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Alternation of Generations

8 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Alternation of Generations Sporophyte (2n) is named for its production of spores by meiosis. – Spore is haploid reproductive cell. Gametophyte (n) is named for its production of gametes.

9 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Reduction in Size of Gametophyte

10 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Alternation of Generations Appearance of generations varies widely. – In ferns, female portions are archegonia and are fertilized by flagellated sperm. – In angiosperm, female gametophyte (embryo sac), consists of an ovule.  Following fertilization, ovule becomes seed. – In seed plants, pollen grains are mature sperm-bearing male gametophytes.

11 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Protection of Eggs and Embryos

12 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Other Terrestrial Adaptations Vascular tissue transports water and nutrients to the body of the plant. Cuticle is an effective barrier to water loss. Stomata bordered by guard cells that regulate opening, and thus water loss.

13 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Leaves of Vascular Plants

14 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Nonvascular Plants – Do not have true roots, stems, or leaves. – Gametophyte is dominant generation.  Produces eggs in archegonia and flagellated sperm in antheridia.  Sperm swim to egg in film of water.

15 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Nonvascular Plants Hornworts (phylum Anthocerophyta) have small sporophytes that carry on photosynthesis.

16 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Nonvascular Plants Liverworts (phylum Hepatophyta) have either flattened thallus or leafy appearance.

17 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Nonvascular Plants Mosses (phylum Bryophyta) usually have a leafy shoot, although some are secondarily flattened. – Can reproduce asexually by fragmentation. – Dependent sporophyte consists of foot, stalk, and sporangium.

18 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Moss Life Cycle

19 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Vascular Plants Xylem conducts water and dissolved minerals up from roots. Phloem conducts sucrose and other organic compounds throughout the plant. Lignin strengthens walls of conducting cells in xylem.

20 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Vascular Tissue

21 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Seedless Vascular Plants Club Mosses (phylum Lycophyta) – Typically, branching rhizome sends up short aerial stems. – Leaves are microphylls (have only one strand of vascular tissue). – Sporangia occur on surfaces of sporophylls.  Grouped into club-shaped strobili.

22 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Club Mosses

23 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Seedless Vascular Plants Ferns and Allies – Horsetails (phylum Sphenophyta)  Rhizome produces tall aerial stems.  Contains whorls of slender, green branches.  Small, scalelike leaves also form whorls at the joints.

24 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Horsetail

25 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Ferns Whisk Ferns (phylum Psilotophyta) – Branched rhizome has rhizoids. – Mutualistic mycorrhizal fungus helps gather nutrients. Ferns (phylum Pterophyta) – Large conspicuous fronds.  Divided into leaflets.  Dominant sporophyte produces windblown spores.

26 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Whisk Ferns and Ferns

27 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Fern Life Cycle

28 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Fern Life Cycle

29 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Seed Plants Seed plants are the most plentiful plants in the biosphere. – Seed coat and stored food allow an embryo to survive harsh conditions during long period of dormancy. – Heterosporous  Drought-resistant pollen grains.  Ovule develops into seed.

30 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Gymnosperms (naked seeds) Gymnosperms have ovules and seeds exposed on the surface of sporophylls.

31 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Conifers Conifers, as well as other gymnosperm phyla, bear cones. – Tough, needlelike leaves of pines conserve water with a thick cuticle and recessed stomata.  Considered a “soft” wood because it consists primarily of xylem tissue.

32 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Conifers

33 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Pine Life Cycle

34 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Pine Life Cycle

35 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Cycads Cycads (phylum Cycadophyta) have large, finely divided leaves that grow in clusters at the top of the stem. Oldest of the gymnosperms (about 320 million years ago) – Pollen and seed cones on separate plants

36 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Ginkgoes Ginkgoes (phylum Ginkgophyta) – are dioecious (male and female plants) with some trees producing seeds and others producing pollen. – One surviving species =Gingko biloba

37 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Gnetophytes Gnetophytes (phylum Gnetophyta) believed to be closest to angiosperms because of similarity in xylem tissue and some even produce nectar for pollinators!

38 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Angiosperms (covered seeds) Angiosperms (phylum Anthophyta) – are an exceptionally large and successful group of plants.  Produce flowers  Seeds are enclosed in a fruit.  Oldest fossils are 130 million years old

39 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Monocots and Eudicots Two classes of flowering plants. – Monocotyledones (Monocots)  One cotyledon in seed. – Eudicotyledones (Dicots)  Two cotyledons in seed.

40 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. The Flower Penducle (flower stalk) expands at tip into a receptacle. – Bears sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels, all attached to receptacle in whorls. – Calyx (collection of sepals) protect flower bud before it opens. – Corolla (collection of petals).

41 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. The Flower – Each stamen consists of an anther and a filament (stalk). – Carpel has three major regions.  Ovary - Swollen base.  Fruit  Style - Elevates stigma.  Stigma - Sticky receptor of pollen grains.

42 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.

43 Flowering Plant Life Cycle

44 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Flowering Plant Life Cycle

45 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Flowers and Diversification Wind-pollinated flowers are usually not showy. Bird-pollinated flowers are often colorful. Night-blooming flowers attract nocturnal mammals or insects. – Usually white or cream-colored. Fruits of flowers protect and aid in dispersal. – Utilize wind, gravity, water, and animals for dispersal.


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