2 Introduction Cleaning Cleaning refers to chlorine washing of the banana fruit for the removal of undesirable material including latex, chemicals, adhering soil particles along with the microorganisms carried by the soil.SortingSorting in banana would refer to removal of overripe, injured, bruised, rotten, diseased, infected and cut fruits.GradingGrading in banana fruit would refer to categorization of fruits based on number & size of fingers in each hand.
3 Sequence of postharvest operations in banana Rinsing in water & trimming of crownsHarvestingCleaning withChlorine waterGradingFungicides & Alum treatmentDelatexing of handsMarketing & ConsumerPackagingStorage & Ripening
5 Colour Guide for Post harvest Handling of Banana fruit Source:Colour Guide for Post harvest Handling of Banana fruit
6 Source: http://arbolatrading.com/IRS%20-%20BANANAS.pdf Colour Guide for Post harvest Handling of Banana fruitHarvesting StageCharacteristics1. All greenVery firm fruit with very low sugar content. Immediately upon arrival at warehouse, fruit should be placed into ripening room at appropriate temperature. Appropriate stage for long distance transportation.2. Light GreenFruit becomes less firm as starch begins to convert into sugar. Ripening process has begun and fruit generates heat which must be removed to control ripening.3. More Green than YellowFruit softens as starch convert s into sugar. Ripening process generates considerable amounts of heat which must be removed. Retail delivery recommended.4. More Yellow than GreenProper colour for retail display provides good consumer acceptance and product life. Fruit requires careful handling.5. Yellow with green tipsFruit must be stored with box tops removed and cartons stacked for ventilation. Fruit not on display should be stored at 580F.6. Full YellowSoft fruit with good flavour. Fruit should be on display and not in storage.7. Yellow with brown flecksBrown flecks indicate high sugar. Consumer can refrigerate fruit to maintain flavour or can be peeled and frozen. Fruits should be separated from less ripe fruit.Source:
8 Cleaning, Delatexting & Fungicide treatment Banana fruits are immersed in a huge tank of fresh water for about 30 min (Sodium hypochlorate is an effective solvent) and ‘delatexed’ - in other words the latex on them is washed away. In order to protect fruit against fungal attack (especially during rainy season) which causes crown rot during shipment, the crowns are treated with fungicide involving spraying the banana fruit.Care taken during fungicide spray:Permissible (i.e. not prohibited) for use on the crop after harvest; effective in controlling the post-harvest diseases; used in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions and at their recommended concentrations (excessive residues on produce may lead to its rejection); agitated continuously during use to prevent its settling out. Care must be taken that employees using fungicides observe all the precautions applicable to their use and that they wear the necessary protective clothing.
10 Sorting and Grading of banana Source:Diseased damaged and undesirable fruits are separated from the lot. Generally fruits are categorized based on their size and colour and stage of maturity.
11 Grading in bananaMainly based on size, colour and maturity of the fruits.Smaller fruits are separated from the larger ones to achieve uniform ripening.Immature, overripe, damaged and diseased fruits are discarded.The fruits are generally harvested early in the season at a pre-mature stage to capture early market.Ethylene application is the best method to hasten ripening without loss in fruit quality and flavour.Mature fruits are ripened with lower doses of ethrel for uniform colour development (slow ripening under controlled condition at C).
12 AGMARK Standards for grading of banana fruit Bananas shall be obtained from Varieties (cultivars) of Musa. spp. of the Musaceae family.MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS(i) Bananas shall be :(a) whole (taking the finger as the reference),(b) firm,(c) sound,(d) clean, free of any visible foreign matter,(e) free of bruisings,(f) free of pests affecting the general appearance of produce,(g) with the stalk intact, without bending, fungal damage or dessication,(h) with pistils removed,(i) free of malformation or abnormal curvature of the fingers,(j) free of damage caused by low temperature,(k) free of abnormal external moisture excluding condensation following removal from cold storage and bananas packed under modified atmosphere condition,(l) free of any foreign smell and/or taste.(ii) In addition, hands and clusters must include:- a sufficient portion of the crown of normal colouring, sound and free of fungal contamination,- a cleanly cut crown, not bevelled or torn, with no stalk fragments.(iii) Bananas shall comply with the residue levels of heavy metals, Pesticides and other food safety parameters as laid down by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for exports
13 3. Criteria for grade designation: Grade designation Grade RequirementsGrade tolerancesExtra classBananas shall be of superior quality. They must be characteristics of the variety and/or commercial type. The fingers must be free of defects, with the exception of very slight superficial defects, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.5% by number or weight of bananas not satisfying the requirements of the grade, but meeting those of for Class I grade or, exceptionally, coming within the tolerances for that class.Class IBananas shall be of good quality. They must be characteristics of the variety and/or commercial type. The following slight defects of the fingers, however, may be allowed, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.slight defects in shape and colour;slight defects due to rubbing and other superficial defects not exceeding 2 sq.cm. of the total surface area.The defects must not affect the flesh of the fruit.10% number or weight of bananas not satisfying the requirements of the gradeclass, but meeting those of Class II or, exceptionally, coming within the tolerances of that grade.
14 3. Criteria for grade designation: -cont- Grade RequirementsGrade tolerancesClass IIThis includes bananas which do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes, but satisfy the minimum requirements. The following defects may be there, provided the bananas retain their essential characteristics as regards the quality, the keeping quality and presentation.defects in shape and colour provided the product remains the normal characteristics of bananas;skin defects due to scrapping, scabs, rubbing, blemishes or other causes not exceeding 4 sq.cm. of the total surface area;The defects must not affect the flesh of the fruit.10% by number or weight of bananas not satisfying the requirements of the grade, but meeting the minimum requirements.
15 Other requirements(i) The development and condition of the bananas must be such as to enable them:- to reach the appropriate stage of physiological maturity corresponding to the particular characteristics of the variety,- to withstand transport and handling, and- to arrive in satisfactory condition at the place of destination in order to ripen satisfactorily.(ii) Bananas must be presented in hands and clusters (parts of hands) of atleast four fingers. Bananas may also be presented as single finger.- Clusters with no more than two missing fingers are allowed, provided the stalk is not torn but clearly cut, without damage to the neighboring fingers.- Not more than one cluster of three fingers with the same characteristics as the other fruit in the package may be present per row.
16 Cleaning, sorting and grading of banana Let us sum upBanana is one of the most is the most important fruit crops of India. It is available through out the year in the country.Drying, curing, sorting and grading are important operations in potato after harvestingCleaning of potato refers to removal of undesirable material i.e. adhering soil alongwith the microorganisms carried by the soil while, Sorting in potato would refer to removal of rotten, diseased, infected and cut fruits.Grading in potato would refer to categorization of fruits based mostly on their size / weight into 4 to 6 categories through rectangular sieves.PreviousEnd