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HARVESTING, HANDLING AND PACKAGING OF TABLE GRAPES FOR EXPORT.

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Presentation on theme: "HARVESTING, HANDLING AND PACKAGING OF TABLE GRAPES FOR EXPORT."— Presentation transcript:

1 HARVESTING, HANDLING AND PACKAGING OF TABLE GRAPES FOR EXPORT

2 HARVESTING Standards of grape maturity Standards of grape maturity Sugar level (sweetness) Sugar level (sweetness) Acid level (acidity taste) Acid level (acidity taste) Colour of the berries Colour of the berries White cultivars: Green, amber, yellow White cultivars: Green, amber, yellow Red cultivars: Pink, light red, dark red Red cultivars: Pink, light red, dark red Black: Black is only option Black: Black is only option Sugar:acid ratio (20:1-35:1) Sugar:acid ratio (20:1-35:1)

3 Sugar levels International standards for USA, Europe, UK, Far East (developed countries) International standards for USA, Europe, UK, Far East (developed countries) Minimum sugar levels (degrees Brix) Minimum sugar levels (degrees Brix) 15.5-17.5 degrees Brix 15.5-17.5 degrees Brix Sugar:Acid ratio Sugar:Acid ratio 20:1 to 25:1 20:1 to 25:1 Cultivar differences are very great Cultivar differences are very great Standards are different for various cultivars Standards are different for various cultivars

4 Refractometer Instrument that measures degrees Brix Instrument that measures degrees Brix Helpful instrument to determine the ripeness levels of the grapes Helpful instrument to determine the ripeness levels of the grapes Planning essential for the start of harvest Planning essential for the start of harvest Client may discard the fruit if minimum sugar levels are not adhered to Client may discard the fruit if minimum sugar levels are not adhered to

5 Specialised and expensive instrument that needs careful handling, cleaning and regular calibration with distilled water Vital instrument for any grape grower

6 Grape colour (white) GREEN Sultana/Kishmish AMBER Sultana/Kishmish YELLOW Sultana/Kishmish

7 Grape colour (red) PIENK Crimson Seedless RED Crimson Seedless DARK RED Crimson Seedless

8 Grape colour (black) AUTUMN ROYAL MIDNIGHT BEAUTY

9 Local market versus Export market What are the differences?? What are the differences?? Why should we think differently about the two? Why should we think differently about the two? Time between harvest and selling in local market is 1-2 days Time between harvest and selling in local market is 1-2 days Time between harvest and selling in export market is 7-30 days Time between harvest and selling in export market is 7-30 days FRESHNESS or SHELF LIFE or KEEPING QUALITY FRESHNESS or SHELF LIFE or KEEPING QUALITY

10 Local market sales

11 IDEAL SITUATION To retain peak condition, harvested grapes must be transported as quickly as possible to a facility where it can be cooled rapidly to reduce its field heat To retain peak condition, harvested grapes must be transported as quickly as possible to a facility where it can be cooled rapidly to reduce its field heat This fast cooling should be followed by storage at a constant temperature (0-1 degree Celsius), high humidity (90-98%), suitable air movement and atmospheric composition. This fast cooling should be followed by storage at a constant temperature (0-1 degree Celsius), high humidity (90-98%), suitable air movement and atmospheric composition.

12 MIND SET FOR EXPORT What are the main challenges we face to increase the shelf life of the grapes? What are the main challenges we face to increase the shelf life of the grapes? TWO MAIN CHALLENGES TWO MAIN CHALLENGES Decrease temperature as fast as possible after picking Decrease temperature as fast as possible after picking Maintain humidity as high as possible as soon as possible after picking Maintain humidity as high as possible as soon as possible after picking Large commercial exportation in USA, SA, Chile, Australia Large commercial exportation in USA, SA, Chile, Australia Storage at 0-1 degree Celsius after fast cooling Storage at 0-1 degree Celsius after fast cooling 90-98% Relative Humidity 90-98% Relative Humidity

13 Modern packing facilities -cooling -hygiene -handling

14 Modern cooling and transport facilities

15 Importance of temperature

16 Maintaining the cold chain

17

18 Understanding the grape Extremely important to know what happens to the bunches after they have been harvested, because then we know what we can do to prevent fast deterioration of the fruit. Extremely important to know what happens to the bunches after they have been harvested, because then we know what we can do to prevent fast deterioration of the fruit. Remember: Remember: Grapes do not ripen after harvest like some other fruit (bananas, pears), it only deteriorates Grapes do not ripen after harvest like some other fruit (bananas, pears), it only deteriorates Aim of post harvest treatments are to limit the rate of deterioration Aim of post harvest treatments are to limit the rate of deterioration High temperature and low humidity after picking will cause water loss from the stems and berries, and this will increase the rate of deterioration High temperature and low humidity after picking will cause water loss from the stems and berries, and this will increase the rate of deterioration

19 Symptoms of water loss 1-2% weight loss of bunch will have negative effects on berry firmness and stem colour 1-2% weight loss of bunch will have negative effects on berry firmness and stem colour 3-5% weight loss of bunch will cause serious deterioration 3-5% weight loss of bunch will cause serious deterioration Bunch discoloration (browning) Bunch discoloration (browning) Drying of bunch stems Drying of bunch stems Loose berries Loose berries Loss of berry firmness Loss of berry firmness This deterioration is permanent and will cause rejection of the fruit by the market This deterioration is permanent and will cause rejection of the fruit by the market

20 Stem browning due to delays before cooling 32°C/80% Relative Humidity + 6 days at 0°C/80%RH Symptoms of water loss

21 Loss of berry firmness Symptoms of water loss Stem browning

22 Loose berries Browning

23 Good storage conditions Break in cold chain can increase risk of decay and disease development Break in cold chain can increase risk of decay and disease development Botrytis rot biggest problem Botrytis rot biggest problem Surface and sub-surface browning of berries can develop in sensitive cultivars Surface and sub-surface browning of berries can develop in sensitive cultivars

24 Grapes before harvest Deterioration as browning after storage Internal browning

25 Botrytis decay Grey mould

26 Physical bruising Sun burn

27 Effects of water loss No cooling + bad storage <10 days Proper cooling + storage 130 days

28 Realities for Afghan growers We do not have all the specialized equipment and facilities as the developed countries We do not have all the specialized equipment and facilities as the developed countries We do not have cultivars with good natural shelf life We do not have cultivars with good natural shelf life BUT: BUT: What are we going to do to get our grapes in the best possible condition for export? What are we going to do to get our grapes in the best possible condition for export?

29 Actions to prevent deterioration Before picking Before picking Vineyard management that produced healthy grapes Vineyard management that produced healthy grapes Bird damage Bird damage Good cluster formation (low compaction) Good cluster formation (low compaction) Bee/wasp/other insects damage Bee/wasp/other insects damage Physical damage Physical damage Phytosanitary control of diseases (powdery mildew, Botrytis) Phytosanitary control of diseases (powdery mildew, Botrytis)

30 Bird damage Wasps/bees

31 Bird control Netting Bags

32 Sun burn Physical blemishes

33 Berry split/cracking and sun spots

34 Compact bunch damages easily Loose bunch with less risk of damage during transport

35 Diseases Powdery mildew

36 Severe mealy bug infestation of clusters

37 Actions to prevent deterioration During picking During picking Boxes for picking must be clean Boxes for picking must be clean Clean harvesting scissors for picking Clean harvesting scissors for picking Clean hands Clean hands Harvest during cool part of the day (<25°C) Harvest during cool part of the day (<25°C) Handle fruit carefully Handle fruit carefully Pack only one layer of grapes in box Pack only one layer of grapes in box Put soft materials at bottom of box Put soft materials at bottom of box Pick bunches of mostly similar maturity and berry size (uniformity) Pick bunches of mostly similar maturity and berry size (uniformity) Transport as quickly as possible to working area Transport as quickly as possible to working area

38 Harvesting scissors Harvesting equipment Cluster preparation and cleaning scissors

39 Wrong way of handling fruit Dirty basket “Clamping” the cluster Multi layers in picking boxes

40 Correct way of handling fruit Support cluster at bottom Single layer of fruit in picking box Soft material in bottom to prevent bruising

41 Pick grapes of similar maturity Uneven maturity Even maturity

42 Transport grapes from the field to pack house as quickly as possible

43 Actions to prevent deterioration During handling of clusters in pack house During handling of clusters in pack house Work hygienic (clean hands, area of working, equipment) Work hygienic (clean hands, area of working, equipment) Trimming the bad parts of the cluster Trimming the bad parts of the cluster Rot Rot Bird damage Bird damage Physical damage, undesirable berries Physical damage, undesirable berries Remove undesirable parts that will make packaging difficult Remove undesirable parts that will make packaging difficult Careful handling of the cluster Careful handling of the cluster Limit touching the berries Limit touching the berries No damage by the scissors to other berries, disease later No damage by the scissors to other berries, disease later Handle the bunch by the stem only Handle the bunch by the stem only Work softly with the bunch when picking it up and putting it down Work softly with the bunch when picking it up and putting it down

44 Careful handling of clusters

45 Actions to prevent deterioration During packing the fruit in boxes for export During packing the fruit in boxes for export Packing only one layer of bunches, no stacking of bunches on top of another Packing only one layer of bunches, no stacking of bunches on top of another Hygienic area and equipment Hygienic area and equipment Always clean your hands Always clean your hands Boxes must be clean Boxes must be clean Packaging material must be clean Packaging material must be clean Height of grapes in the box may never be higher than the height of the box Height of grapes in the box may never be higher than the height of the box

46 Packaging procedures SO2 pad

47 Types of packaging Paper bags Panets Sponge (loose) Loose Plastic carry bags

48 Strength of boxes to prevent pressure on clusters below

49 Practical approaches to Afghanistan limitations Our limitations are: Our limitations are: Lack of cultivars with good natural shelf life Lack of cultivars with good natural shelf life Shindokghani Shindokghani Taifi Taifi Delays between picking and packing shed Delays between picking and packing shed Lack of proper cooling facilities after picking and during transport Lack of proper cooling facilities after picking and during transport Lack of proper control of humidity Lack of proper control of humidity Lack of proper packaging materials Lack of proper packaging materials TRY TO LIMIT THE HANDLING OF THE GRAPES TO AS LITTLE AS POSSIBLE TRY TO LIMIT THE HANDLING OF THE GRAPES TO AS LITTLE AS POSSIBLE

50 Field preparation and packing

51 Cooling options Straw house for packing and storage Evaporative cooling by wetting the sides during the day and thereby creating lower temperatures inside as well as increased humidity

52 Transport options Creating air flow for bulk loads

53 Transport options Creating air flow through the load Stacking the boxes inside with space for air flow

54 Packaging options Rice straw/dry grasses as liners in the bottom of boxes to limit physical damage Rice straw/dry grasses as liners in the bottom of boxes to limit physical damage No “pressure” of grapes between boxes No “pressure” of grapes between boxes The use of plastic/polyethylene liners inside the boxes are the only probable means of ensuring less water loss during transport The use of plastic/polyethylene liners inside the boxes are the only probable means of ensuring less water loss during transport But: Can result in “sweating” of grapes But: Can result in “sweating” of grapes Open truck transport of grapes without humidity protection is extremely risky Open truck transport of grapes without humidity protection is extremely risky Good airflow in the shipment will increase the rate of water loss of the berries and stems Good airflow in the shipment will increase the rate of water loss of the berries and stems Use of plastic liner will also decrease physical damage of the fruit in the wooden/carton box Use of plastic liner will also decrease physical damage of the fruit in the wooden/carton box Physical damage=juice=fast deterioration (rot) Physical damage=juice=fast deterioration (rot)

55 Loose packaging

56 Bagged packaging

57 Summary We do not have the modern advantages, accept it We do not have the modern advantages, accept it Pick the fruit during the coolest part of the day (early morning) Pick the fruit during the coolest part of the day (early morning) Pick the grapes carefully and only pack as one layer before trimming and cleaning Pick the grapes carefully and only pack as one layer before trimming and cleaning Work in a shaded place (straw house) Work in a shaded place (straw house) Store the grapes well ventilated with good humidity Store the grapes well ventilated with good humidity Cover the grapes inside the boxes with plastic liner to limit water loss Cover the grapes inside the boxes with plastic liner to limit water loss Get the grapes to the market as quickly as possible Get the grapes to the market as quickly as possible Be inventive in your efforts to keep the grapes cool and as humid as possible Be inventive in your efforts to keep the grapes cool and as humid as possible


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