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Presentation on theme: "HARVESTING, HANDLING AND PACKAGING OF TABLE GRAPES FOR EXPORT"— Presentation transcript:


2 HARVESTING Standards of grape maturity Sugar level (sweetness)
Acid level (acidity taste) Colour of the berries White cultivars: Green, amber, yellow Red cultivars: Pink, light red, dark red Black: Black is only option Sugar:acid ratio (20:1-35:1)

3 Sugar levels International standards for USA, Europe, UK, Far East (developed countries) Minimum sugar levels (degrees Brix) degrees Brix Sugar:Acid ratio 20:1 to 25:1 Cultivar differences are very great Standards are different for various cultivars

4 Refractometer Instrument that measures degrees Brix
Helpful instrument to determine the ripeness levels of the grapes Planning essential for the start of harvest Client may discard the fruit if minimum sugar levels are not adhered to

5 Specialised and expensive instrument that needs careful handling, cleaning and regular calibration with distilled water Vital instrument for any grape grower

6 Grape colour (white) YELLOW Sultana/Kishmish GREEN Sultana/Kishmish
AMBER Sultana/Kishmish

7 Grape colour (red) PIENK Crimson Seedless RED Crimson Seedless
DARK RED Crimson Seedless


9 Local market versus Export market
What are the differences?? Why should we think differently about the two? Time between harvest and selling in local market is 1-2 days Time between harvest and selling in export market is 7-30 days FRESHNESS or SHELF LIFE or KEEPING QUALITY

10 Local market sales

11 IDEAL SITUATION To retain peak condition, harvested grapes must be transported as quickly as possible to a facility where it can be cooled rapidly to reduce its field heat This fast cooling should be followed by storage at a constant temperature (0-1 degree Celsius), high humidity (90-98%), suitable air movement and atmospheric composition.

12 MIND SET FOR EXPORT What are the main challenges we face to increase the shelf life of the grapes? TWO MAIN CHALLENGES Decrease temperature as fast as possible after picking Maintain humidity as high as possible as soon as possible after picking Large commercial exportation in USA, SA, Chile, Australia Storage at 0-1 degree Celsius after fast cooling 90-98% Relative Humidity

13 Modern packing facilities
-cooling -hygiene -handling

14 Modern cooling and transport facilities

15 Importance of temperature

16 Maintaining the cold chain

17 Maintaining the cold chain

18 Understanding the grape
Extremely important to know what happens to the bunches after they have been harvested, because then we know what we can do to prevent fast deterioration of the fruit. Remember: Grapes do not ripen after harvest like some other fruit (bananas, pears), it only deteriorates Aim of post harvest treatments are to limit the rate of deterioration High temperature and low humidity after picking will cause water loss from the stems and berries, and this will increase the rate of deterioration

19 Symptoms of water loss 1-2% weight loss of bunch will have negative effects on berry firmness and stem colour 3-5% weight loss of bunch will cause serious deterioration Bunch discoloration (browning) Drying of bunch stems Loose berries Loss of berry firmness This deterioration is permanent and will cause rejection of the fruit by the market

20 Symptoms of water loss Stem browning due to delays before cooling
32°C/80% Relative Humidity + 6 days at 0°C/80%RH

21 Stem browning Symptoms of water loss Loss of berry firmness

22 Browning Loose berries

23 Good storage conditions
Break in cold chain can increase risk of decay and disease development Botrytis rot biggest problem Surface and sub-surface browning of berries can develop in sensitive cultivars

24 Deterioration as browning after storage
Internal browning Deterioration as browning after storage Grapes before harvest

25 Botrytis decay Grey mould

26 Physical bruising Sun burn

27 Proper cooling + storage
Effects of water loss No cooling + bad storage <10 days Proper cooling + storage 130 days

28 Realities for Afghan growers
We do not have all the specialized equipment and facilities as the developed countries We do not have cultivars with good natural shelf life BUT: What are we going to do to get our grapes in the best possible condition for export?

29 Actions to prevent deterioration
Before picking Vineyard management that produced healthy grapes Bird damage Good cluster formation (low compaction) Bee/wasp/other insects damage Physical damage Phytosanitary control of diseases (powdery mildew, Botrytis)

30 Bird damage Wasps/bees

31 Bird control Netting Bags

32 Sun burn Physical blemishes

33 Berry split/cracking and sun spots

34 Compact bunch damages easily
Loose bunch with less risk of damage during transport

35 Diseases Powdery mildew

36 Severe mealy bug infestation of clusters

37 Actions to prevent deterioration
During picking Boxes for picking must be clean Clean harvesting scissors for picking Clean hands Harvest during cool part of the day (<25°C) Handle fruit carefully Pack only one layer of grapes in box Put soft materials at bottom of box Pick bunches of mostly similar maturity and berry size (uniformity) Transport as quickly as possible to working area

38 Harvesting equipment Harvesting scissors Cluster preparation
and cleaning scissors Harvesting scissors

39 Wrong way of handling fruit
“Clamping” the cluster Wrong way of handling fruit Multi layers in picking boxes Dirty basket

40 Soft material in bottom
Correct way of handling fruit Support cluster at bottom Soft material in bottom to prevent bruising Single layer of fruit in picking box

41 Pick grapes of similar maturity
Even maturity Uneven maturity

42 Transport grapes from the
field to pack house as quickly as possible

43 Actions to prevent deterioration
During handling of clusters in pack house Work hygienic (clean hands, area of working, equipment) Trimming the bad parts of the cluster Rot Bird damage Physical damage, undesirable berries Remove undesirable parts that will make packaging difficult Careful handling of the cluster Limit touching the berries No damage by the scissors to other berries, disease later Handle the bunch by the stem only Work softly with the bunch when picking it up and putting it down

44 Careful handling of clusters

45 Actions to prevent deterioration
During packing the fruit in boxes for export Packing only one layer of bunches, no stacking of bunches on top of another Hygienic area and equipment Always clean your hands Boxes must be clean Packaging material must be clean Height of grapes in the box may never be higher than the height of the box

46 Packaging procedures SO2 pad

47 Types of packaging Plastic carry bags Paper bags Panets Loose
Sponge (loose)

48 Strength of boxes to prevent pressure
on clusters below

49 Practical approaches to Afghanistan limitations
Our limitations are: Lack of cultivars with good natural shelf life Shindokghani Taifi Delays between picking and packing shed Lack of proper cooling facilities after picking and during transport Lack of proper control of humidity Lack of proper packaging materials TRY TO LIMIT THE HANDLING OF THE GRAPES TO AS LITTLE AS POSSIBLE

50 Field preparation and packing

51 Straw house for packing and storage
Cooling options Straw house for packing and storage Evaporative cooling by wetting the sides during the day and thereby creating lower temperatures inside as well as increased humidity

52 Creating air flow for bulk loads
Transport options Creating air flow for bulk loads

53 Transport options Stacking the boxes inside with space for air flow
Creating air flow through the load

54 Packaging options Rice straw/dry grasses as liners in the bottom of boxes to limit physical damage No “pressure” of grapes between boxes The use of plastic/polyethylene liners inside the boxes are the only probable means of ensuring less water loss during transport But: Can result in “sweating” of grapes Open truck transport of grapes without humidity protection is extremely risky Good airflow in the shipment will increase the rate of water loss of the berries and stems Use of plastic liner will also decrease physical damage of the fruit in the wooden/carton box Physical damage=juice=fast deterioration (rot)

55 Loose packaging

56 Bagged packaging

57 Summary We do not have the modern advantages, accept it
Pick the fruit during the coolest part of the day (early morning) Pick the grapes carefully and only pack as one layer before trimming and cleaning Work in a shaded place (straw house) Store the grapes well ventilated with good humidity Cover the grapes inside the boxes with plastic liner to limit water loss Get the grapes to the market as quickly as possible Be inventive in your efforts to keep the grapes cool and as humid as possible


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