Section 1: The 1980s ESSENTIAL QUESTION : – How did Georgia change during the 1980s?
Section 1: The 1980s What words do I need to know? –telecommute –email –Reaganomics –Quality Basic Education –Per capita income
1980s The age of the personal computerpersonal computer email: sending messages by computer telecommute: work at home while keeping in touch with the office by computer Schools began to purchase computers Other technology: ATMs, FAX machines, cellular phones, Internet, scanners More television channels added with cable and satellite service
The End of the Cold War Ronald Reagan: “Great Communicator” elected president – served 1981-1989Ronald Reagan Reaganomics: “supply-side” economics, tax cuts, heavy defense spending, limited government, limited regulation on business Reagan tough with USSR By end of 1980s, Cold War ending Mikhail Gorbachev: leader of USSR 1989: Berlin Wall came downBerlin Wall 1991: Communist USSR government collapsed
Georgia During the 1980s Governors –George Busbee: 1975-1983 – foreign investment increased; expanded Department of Industry and Trade; expanded ports and highway system –Joe Frank Harris: 1983-1991 – brought over 850,000 jobs; Georgia Dome; World Congress Center expansion Educational Improvements –Full-day kindergarten; increased teachers’ salaries; testing of teachers; QBE (Quality Basic Education) standard curriculum Georgia Gets a New Constitution –Adopted 1982 after 5 years work to shorten it
The Two-Georgia Debate Continues Population of Georgia grew in 1980s People moved to Georgia for mild climate, low taxes, low fuel costs, land, and non-union workers Georgia now one of the fastest growing statesGeorgia Two Georgias: –Atlanta: fast growing and prosperous, generating most taxes, expanding business –Rural: declining population, more poverty, higher unemployment, young people moved to urban areas Click to return to Table of Contents.
Section 2: The 1990s ESSENTIAL QUESTION: –How did Georgia change economically and politically in the 1990s?
Section 2: The 1990s What words do I need to know? –downsizing –bankruptcy –HOPE scholarship program –infrastructure
The 1990s recession: economic slowdown; decreased demand for products and services, increased unemployment, decreased wages downsizing: companies’ reaction to recession – firing workers to cut costs When workers don’t have jobs, they don’t spend money, causing greater recession Many Georgians filed for bankruptcy protection because they had borrowed more money on credit than they could pay back
The Persian Gulf War August 1990: Iraq (led by Saddam Hussein) invaded Kuwait President George Herbert Walker Bush joined Operation Desert Shield and later Desert Storm to free Kuwait from Saddam HusseinDesert Storm January 16, 1991: US and allies began bombing Iraq March 3, 1991: Iraq accepts terms of cease fire and begins to leave Kuwait Ecological disaster left behind: oil fires, 10 million gallons of oil dumped in Persian Gulf
Political Changes in a Conservative South Conservative voters elected conservative Democrats and Republicans In 1980, Mack Mattingly was first Republican US Senator since Reconstruction – by 1992, most were Republicans Cynthia McKinney: Democrat, first black woman elected from Georgia to Congress John Lewis: Democrat, civil rights leader, senior member of Georgia’s congressional delegation
Political Changes in a Conservative South Newt Gingrich: Republican, became Speaker of the US House in 1994, “Contract with America” promised to reduce size of government, resigned in 1998 after poor election results for Republicans Sam Nunn: Democrat, served as US Senator 1972- 1996, expert on military affairs Zell Miller: Democrat, Lt. Governor then Governor (1990-1999), known for educational improvements, “boot-camp” style prisons, state lottery for education – pre-Kindergarten, HOPE scholarships, promoted growth in North Georgia, became US Senator from Georgia
Georgia Hosts the Olympics Summer 1996: Atlanta hosted XXVI OlympiadXXVI Olympiad 10,000 athletes from 197 countries 90,000 volunteers in Atlanta and other Georgia cities and locations Brought international attention to the city and state July 29, 1996: Bomb in Olympic Park killed one visitor and injured 117 Traffic problems brought much criticism Too many street vendors and commercialism were other concerns “Southern hospitality” and athletic competition were noteworthy Click to return to Table of Contents.
Section 3: Terrorism at Home and Abroad ESSENTIAL QUESTION – How did the acts of terrorists change Georgia?
Section 3: Terrorism at Home and Abroad What words do I need to know? –terrorism –al-Qaeda
Terrorism at Home and Abroad terrorism: acts of violence aimed at demoralizing or intimidating others 1993: bomb at World Trade Center garage in New York City 1995: Oklahoma City Murrah Federal Building – car bomb kills 168 people 1998: US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania bombed killing hundreds, injuring thousands – attacks linked to al-Qaeda al-Qaeda: Islamic terrorist group led by Osama bin Laden – wealthy Saudi Arabian terrorist 2000: USS Cole attacked 2001: George W. Bush becomes president
“The Day That Changed America” September 11, 2001: Islamic terrorists hijack US passenger planes and crash them into the World Trade Center and Pentagon One additional plane (United flight 93) was re-taken by passengers but crashed in Pennsylvania WTC towers collapse killing 2,774WTC
Operation Enduring Freedom al-Qaeda linked to the September 11 attacks – based in Afghanistan October 2001: Operation Enduring Freedom – US and other nations’ troops invade Afghanistan to destroy al-Qaeda camps and destroy Taliban government Osama bin Laden escaped Department of Homeland Security created to work to protect Americans at home
Operation Iraqi Freedom Saddam Hussein in Iraq continued to violate UN resolutions regarding weapons of mass destruction and inspections March 19, 2003: US and coalition forces attack Iraq – combat phase over by May US troops continued to work in Iraq for over two years Saddam Hussein captured Weapons of mass destruction were not found
A Touch of Home Officers in Iraq told not to raise the US flag since the Iraqis were not defeated – only their dictator defeated April 2003 – Georgia troops in Iraq make the news raising flag of the University of Georgia Bulldogs!University of Georgia Bulldogs Click to return to Table of Contents.
Section 4: Georgia in a New Century ESSENTIAL QUESTION –What important issues face Georgians in the 21 st century?
Section 4: Georgia in a New Century What words do I need to know? –Georgia Regional Transportation Authority
Roy E. Barnes 1999: Roy Barnes, Democrat, becomes governor Served 24 years in legislature Costliest campaign for governor in GA history Worked to change the state flag, reform education, and build transportation projects such as the Northern Arcstate flag
The State Flag Issue 1956: Georgia flag changed to incorporate the St. Andrew’s cross, a Confederate battle emblem Some African Americans were offended as were some modern leaders – concerned the flag focused on slavery and the past Governor Barnes led effort to have flag changed New flag approved in 2001 but was unpopular The flag controversy was one factor in Barnes losing his re-election bid for governor 2003: Governor Sonny Purdue signed bill creating new Georgia flag
Highway Issues Pollution and traffic congestion in Atlanta were problemsPollution Georgia Regional Transportation Authority (GRTA) created by Gov. Barnes to address traffic problems Auto pollution (emissions) were reducedemissions Plans for 59-mile Northern Arc north of Atlanta were put on hold by Gov. Barnes and abandoned by Gov. Purdue
Education Reform Barnes began reduction of class sizes in lower grades, a building and renovation program for schools, and addition of school nurses Student achievement did not improve greatly Barnes was not re-elected and many of his reforms did not continue
Georgia Elects Republican Governor Sonny Purdue, Republican, elected in 2002 First Republican governor in Georgia in 130 years Georgia legislature had Democratic majority until 2004 Georgians elected Republicans to the US Senate and most of US House of Representatives Voters gave Georgia a two-party system
Challenges for the Future Three main challenges: 1. water resources 2. differences between urban and rural Georgia 3. tremendous population growth Alabama, Florida and US government have demanded Georgia reduce water use and pollution Difficult to fund services such as schools in rural areas 8 million people live in Georgia – large increase puts demands on environment Click to return to Table of Contents.