Presentation on theme: "Kofi Poku Quan-Baffour Human Trafficking Conference, Benoni South Africa, 23- 24 March 2010 ‘ Up for sale’: Confronting the challenge of Child trafficking."— Presentation transcript:
Kofi Poku Quan-Baffour Human Trafficking Conference, Benoni South Africa, 23- 24 March 2010 ‘ Up for sale’: Confronting the challenge of Child trafficking in Africa
Over view Introduction Forms & methods of child trafficking Evils & effects of child trafficking Challenges to prevention of child trafficking Ways to confront child trafficking Conclusion Presenter’s contact details
Introduction Human trafficking, dubbed modern day slave trade, an illegal clandestine activity Child trafficking =clandestine recruitment, transporting, transferring, habouring or receiving any person under 18 years for the purpose of sexual exploitation, harzardous work, slavery, servitude or removal of organs Seems incomprehensible but true that trade in humans is more common in 21 first century [McIntosh, 2003] Three categories – source, transit & destination countries. Countries may fall with 3, 2 or 1
Forms and methods of child trafficking Child trafficking takes various forms- forced marriage, forced labour, forced conscription[child soldiers], illegal adoption, abduction and direct sale Child trafficking may be domestic or transnational e.g. civil conflicts in Somalia, DRC, Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi etc =displacement & insecurity vulnerable & traumatised children taken advantage of; trafficked, trained as soldiers, aides, used as sex slaves/ concubines to war lords 30,000 chn abducted & conscripted into Lord’s Resistance Army, later sold as mercenaries & sex slaves to Sudan Darfur rebels [Mugerwa, 2008]
Forms & Methods ct’d Over 100 children abducted & transported from Mozambique to South Africa every month for cheap labour & sexual exploitation[ Khoza, 2009], Between 800-1100 Tai girls illegally imported to South Africa P.A for sex industry [Legget, 2004] Between 2800-3800 of girls trafficked into South Africa are involved in prostitution [Molo Songololo, 2000] U S Congressional report affirms: women & girls trafficking for sexual exploitation big problem in Southern African Region.
Evils & Effects of child trafficking Child trafficking is despicable, exploitation, cruel & crime against humanity. Comoditization of children is barbaric & inhuman. Idea of selling & buying children challenges the notion of human civilisational[Gould,2006] Child trafficking is slavery, violation of human right; mental & physical abuse Leads to debt bondage- traffickers may seize victims passport etc & latter may work as prostitutes and drug pedlars for years to redeem themselves Diseases- victims may contract infectious diseases such as TB and HIV/AIDS through sex work Lost of identity of victims- some girls may never get back home Tracking, redeeming victims, arrest & prosecution of culprits put financial burden on government & International organisations
Challenges to prevention of child trafficking Many things pose serious challenge to prevention of child trafficking Few Examples: - The concept child trafficking is slippery, complex; it is difficult to define what constitutes trafficking [Gould, 2006] - lack of proper legislation in most African countries to deal with the problem; at best treated as ordinary offence - Modus operandi: Global network with sophisticated operation Traffickers take advantage of international events e.g. Commonwealth, Olympic games, World cup & religious trips to Holy places like Rome or Mecca - African cultural practices of giving girl children to members of extended family members to stay with -Using girl children as surety for debts incurred by families; inability to pay back renders girls slaves
Ways of confronting child trafficking in Africa Child trafficking affects all countries of the world; no single country can tackle it. Solution lies in global partnership[Clinton,2009] Partnership should involve all citizens, governments, regional & international organisations such as ECOWAS, SADC, EAC, AU, Commonwealth, UN, gender & human rights activists in line with UN GIFT[ Global Initiative to Fight Trafficking] Media should educate all people about the existence & evils of child trafficking & encourage all to be whistle blowers. Media should create awareness regarding trafficking within the family, school, church, community & district Recent rescue of 39 trafficked children in Ghana, 8 in Chad and 12 in Ermelo( S/A 22/3/2010) are commendable efforts & examples for other countries to emulate
Conclusion It is clear from this presentation that political decay in Africa leads to hardships- conditions which create the desire to migrate for better life and thus rendering girls vulnerable to trafficking. The paper concludes that to stop child trafficking - African governments should be forced to democratise, be accountable & institute policies that improve socio-economic conditions of their citizens - Governments should criminalise trafficking by enacting laws to vigorously deal with it[S/A draft law tabled last week] - No single country can stop T I P hence need for global partnerships.
Contact details Kofi Poku Quan-Baffour Department of Adult Basic Education & Training University of South Africa Box 392 Pretoria 0003 Tel. +227 12 -429 6870 e-mail: email@example.com@unisa.ac.za