Presentation on theme: " Early Spanish explorers were Alvárez Piñeda, 1519; Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, 1528; and Hernando de Soto in 1541. Sieur de la Salle reached the mouth."— Presentation transcript:
Early Spanish explorers were Alvárez Piñeda, 1519; Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, 1528; and Hernando de Soto in 1541. Sieur de la Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi and claimed all the land drained by it and its tributaries for Louis XIV of France in 1682. Louisiana became a French crown colony in 1731 but was ceded to Spain in 1763 after the French and Indian Wars. Louisiana reverted to France in 1800 and was sold by Napoleon to the U.S. in 1803. The southern part, known as the territory of Orleans, became the state of Louisiana in 1812
A strong French influence is still evident throughout the state--its capital city is named Baton Rouge, French for "red stick," because the French-Canadian explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville visited the area in 1699 and observed a red cypress post. Today the city of New Orleans is known for its Mardi Gras and jazz festivals. Street names are named after famous French people and words-Many last names come from French names. The legal system in Louisiana derives from the Civil Code established by Napoleon in 1804.
Cajun French is a dialect of the French language spoken primarily in South Louisiana. However, a significant amount of cultural vocabulary is derived from Spanish, German, Portuguese, and Haitian Creole. During the early part of the 20th century, attempts were made to suppress Cajun culture by measures such as forbidding the use of the Cajun French language in schools. The Council for the Development of French in Louisiana (CODOFIL) was established in 1968 to promote the preservation of French language and culture in Louisiana.
During the French and Indian War between France and Great Britain, France offered Louisiana to Spain in order to bring Spain into the conflict on the French side. Spain declined. When the "Family Compact," a supposedly secret alliance between France and Spain, became known to the British, the latter attacked Spain. In November 1762 in the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau, France handed over Louisiana and the Isle of Orleans to Spain.
Four different groups have contributed to its unique heritage: › the Creoles, descendants of the original Spanish and French colonists; › the Cajuns, whose French ancestors were expelled from Acadia (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) by the British in 1755; › the American cotton planters whose beautiful plantation houses can still be seen today; › and the African Americans who worked to create much of Louisiana's wealth and whose music, Jazz, has swept the world.
The Cajuns arrived almost 400 years ago in Canada. They were seeking relief from economic and religious oppression in Nova Scotia, Acadia, and France. These French settlers were later know as the “Acadians”. The Acadians eventually came to Louisiana for a new way of life and lived in isolation.
The fiddle and the accordion are the two main instruments in Cajun music. Cajun music was born from ballads. It was played during small get-togethers or during “fais do-dos” (a public dance in a dance hall). There are several variations of Cajun dance: Cajun Jig, Cajun Two Step, and a Cajun Waltz. In mild contrast, Zydeco dancing is a syncopated two-step.
The famous Mardi Gras holiday is a Cajun-Creole custom Cajuns’ food is more highly spiced: › Cochon de lait (a famous pig roast) › “hot boudin” (Cajun sausage made from rice and pork) › Jambalaya › Crawfish etouffé › Gumbo Cajuns are very superstitious. Cajuns are mostly Roman Catholic.
Swamp pop, Swamp blues, and Zydeco are all creole music. Swamp pop came about in the mid 1950s. Swamp Blues is a sparse but funky sub-genre of blues that flourished in the 1960s.
New Orleans is the place where Creole heritage is the most apparent. The word "Bazah" is Creole for having a good time or a celebration. It includes watching the "Big Chiefs" battle it out on Mardi Gras, the Jazz Funeral procession of a loved one to Mt. Olivet or St. Louis Cemetery. They include First Communions and May Crownings. Creole food is more refined and subtler than the Cajun’s. Many Cajun dishes can be found in Creole cuisine (Gumbo, Jambalaya…)