Presentation on theme: "Plants, Fungi and the Move Onto Land"— Presentation transcript:
1 Plants, Fungi and the Move Onto Land Chapter 16Winter 2015
2 Colonizing Land: Terrestrial Adaptations of Plants Plant is a multicellular eukaryote and a photoautotroph, making organic molecules by photosynthesis.Structural AdaptationsIn terrestrial habitats, the resources that a photosynthetic organism needs are found in two very different placesLight and carbon dioxide are mainly available in the air.Water and mineral nutrients are found mainly in the soil.The complex bodies of plants are specialized to take advantage of these two environments by havingaerial leaf-bearing organs called shoots andsubterranean organs called roots.Leaves are the main photosynthetic organs of most plants, with stomata, microscopic pores found on a leaf’s surface, which allow for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen with the atmosphere,
3 MycorrhizaeMost plants have mycorrhizae, symbiotic fungi associated with their roots, in which the fungiabsorb water and essential minerals from the soil,provide these materials to the plant, andare nourished by sugars produced by the plant.Mycorrhizae are key adaptations that made it possible for plants to live on land
4 Vascular Tissue a system of tube-shaped cells that branch throughout the plant andtransport vital materials, anda waxy layer called the cuticle surface thatcoats the leaves and other aerial parts of most plants andhelps the plant retain water.also found in the roots and shoots.Two types of vascular tissue exist in plants:xylem transports water and minerals from roots to leaves andphloem distributes sugars from leaves tothe roots andother nonphotosynthetic parts of the plant.
5 Reproductive Adaptations Plants produce their gametes in protective structures called gametangia, which have a jacket of protective cells surrounding a moist chamber where gametes can develop without dehydratingThe zygote develops into an embryo while still contained within the female parent in plants but not in algae
6 The Origin of Plants from Green Algae algal ancestors of plantscarpeted moist fringes of lakes or coastal salt marshes andfirst evolved over 500 million years ago.Charophytesare a modern-day lineage of green algae andmay resemble one of these early plant ancestors.Plants and present-day charophytes probably evolved from a common ancestor
7 Highlights of Plant Evolution Four major periods of plant evolution from the fossil record and the diversity of modern plants475 million years ago, plants originated from an algal ancestor giving rise to bryophytes,nonvascular plants without lignified walls, true roots, or true leaves.Include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.425 million years ago, ferns and a few other groups of vascular plants evolvedvascular tissue hardened with lignin but without seeds.360 million years ago, gymnosperms evolvedseeds that consisted of an embryo packaged along with a store of food,within a protective covering, but not enclosed in any specialized chambers.Today, conifers consist mainly of cone-bearing trees such as pines andare the most diverse and widespread gymnosperms.140 million years ago, angiosperms evolvedcomplex reproductive structures called flowers that bear seeds within protective chambers called ovaries.The great majority of living plants are angiosperms,more than 250,000 species, and include fruit and vegetable crops, grains and other grasses, and most trees.
8 Bryophytes Mosses display two key terrestrial adaptations: are bryophytes,sprawl as low mats over acres of land, andneed water to reproduce because their sperm swim to reach eggs within the female gametangium.display two key terrestrial adaptations:a waxy cuticle that helps prevent dehydration andthe retention of developing embryos within the mother plant’s gametangium.two distinct forms:the gametophyte, which produces gametes, andthe sporophyte, which produces spores.The life cycle of a moss exhibits an alternation of generations shifting between the formsunique in having the gametophyte as the larger, more obvious plant
9 Ferns seedless vascular plants more than 12,000 known species. Sperm of ferns have flagella and must swim through a film of water to fertilize eggs.Carboniferous period,from about 360 to 300 million years ago,ferns were part of a great diversity of seedless plants andformed swampy forests over much of what is now Eurasia and North America.As they died, these forests fell into stagnant wetlands, did not decay, and eventually helped to form coal.Fossil fuelsformed from the remains of long-dead organisms andinclude coal, oil, and natural gas.The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, contributing to global climate change.
10 Gymnospermsclimate turned drier and colder, favoring the evolution of gymnospermscomplete their life cycles on dry land andwithstand long, harsh winters.include the conifers, or cone-bearing plantscover much of northern Eurasia and North America,are usually evergreens, which retain their leaves throughout the year, andinclude the tallest, largest, and oldest organisms on Earth.
11 Terrestrial Adaptations of Seed Plants three additional terrestrial adaptations that make survival in diverse terrestrial habitats possible:further reduction of the gametophyte,pollenseeds.greater development of the diploid sporophyte compared to the haploid gametophyte generationA pine tree or other conifer is actually a sporophyte with tiny gametophytes living in conesevolution of pollen the much-reduced male gametophytehouses cells that will develop into sperm.development of the seed, consisting of aplant embryo and food supply packaged together within a protective coat.develop from structures called ovules, located on the scales of female cones in conifers, andcan remain dormant for long periods before they germinate, as the embryo emerges through the seed coat as a seedling.
12 Angiosperms dominate the modern landscape, success is largely due to are represented by about 250,000 species, andsupply nearly all of our food and much of our fiber for textiles.success is largely due torefinements in vascular tissue to make water transport more efficient andthe evolution of the flower.Fruita ripened ovary,helps protect the seed,increases seed dispersal, andis a major food source for animals
13 Discussion: Angiosperms and Agriculture Gymnosperms supply most of our lumber and paperAngiospermsprovide nearly all our food andsupply fiber, medications, perfumes, and decoration.Agriculture is a unique kind of evolutionary relationship between plants and animalsGreen revolutionMonoculture and evolution of plant pestsAgribusiness – economies of scale vs diversity
14 Flowers, Fruits, and the Angiosperm Life Cycle Flowers help to attract pollinators thattransfer pollen from the sperm-bearing organs of one flower to the egg-bearing organs of another.A flower is a short stem bearing modified leaves that are attached in concentric circles at its baseSepals form the outer layer and are usually green.Next inside are petals, which are often colorful and help to attract pollinators.Stamens, the male reproductive structures, are below the petals. Pollen grains develop in the anther, a sac at the top of each stamen.Carpels are the female reproductive structure at the center of the flower. The carpel includesthe ovary, a protective chamber containing one or more ovules in which the eggs develop, andthe sticky tip of the carpel, the stigma, which traps pollen.Flowers come in many formsFlowers are an essential element of the angiosperm life cycleAlthough both have seedsangiosperms enclose the seed within an ovary andgymnosperms have naked seeds.
15 Discussion: Plant Diversity as a Nonrenewable Resource The exploding human population isextinguishing plant species at an unprecedented rate anddestroying 50 million acres, an area the size of the state of Washington, every year!Humans depend on plants for thousands of products includingfood,building materials, andmedicines.Why is preserving plant diversity important ?Scientists are now rallying to slow the loss of plant diversity and encourage good management practices. What should be their goals?
16 Fungi Ecological roles: Fungi are Fungi recycle vital chemical elements back to the environment in forms other organisms can assimilate andform mycorrhizae, fungus-root associations that help plants absorb mineral and water from the soil.Fungi areeukaryotes,typically multicellular, andmore closely related to animals than plants, arising from a common ancestor about 1.5 billion years ago.Fungicome in many shapes and sizes andrepresent more than 100,000 species.
17 Characteristics of Fungi Fungal Nutritionare chemoheterotrophs and acquire their nutrients by absorption.digests food outside its body by secreting powerful digestive enzymes to break down the food and absorbs the simpler food compounds.Fungal Structure: The bodies of most fungi are constructed of threadlike filaments called hyphae.Hyphae are minute threads of cytoplasm surrounded bya plasma membrane andcell walls mainly composed of chitin.Hyphae branch repeatedly, forming an interwoven network called a mycelium (plural, mycelia), the feeding structure of the fungusFungal ReproductionMushrooms arise from an underground mycelium and mainly function in reproduction.releasing haploid spores that are produced eithersexually orasexually.
18 Ecological Impact of Fungi Fungi as DecomposersFungi and bacteria are the principal decomposers of ecosystems and keep ecosystems stocked with the inorganic nutrients necessary for plant growth.Without decomposers, carbon, nitrogen, and other elements would accumulate in nonliving organic matterMolds can destroy fruit, grains, wood, and human-made material.Parasitic Fungiabsorb nutrients from the cells or body fluids of living hostsOf the 100,000 known species of fungi, about 30% make their living as parasites, includingDutch elm disease anddeadly ergot, which infests grain.About 50 species of fungi are known to be parasitic in humans and other animals, causinglung and vaginal yeast infections andathlete’s foot.
19 Discussion:Observation: In 1692, eight young girls were accused of being witches and had symptoms consistent with ergot poisoningQuestion: Did an ergot outbreak cause the witch hunt?Hypothesis: The girls’ symptoms were the result of ergot poisoningPrediction: The historical facts would be consistent with this hypothesisResults:Agricultural records from 1691, before the symptoms appeared, indicated a particularly warm and wet year, in which ergot thrives.Records from the following year, when accusations of witchcraft died down, indicate a dry year consistent with an ergot die-off.Conclusion: This correlation is consistent with the hypothesis but not conclusive.
20 Commercial Uses of Fungi produce medicines such as penicillin,decompose wastes, andproduce bread, beer, wine, and cheeses
21 DiscussionWhat were the challenges faced by algae as they emerged from water to terrestrial habitats?Two species, water lilies and whales, returned to aquatic environmens from the land. What were their adaptations?
22 Discussion How are fungi different than animals? Both are multicellular heterotrophs that lack cellulose
23 Fungal diseases of Other Animals Amphibian Ark:The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describe the origin of the chytrid fungus at htm .
24 DiscussionDescribe the four major periods of plant evolution and the major adaptations associated with each stage.Describe the life cycle and two key terrestrial adaptations of mosses.Explain how ferns differ from and are similar to mosses. Explain how ancient life became today’s fossil fuels.Describe the environmental conditions that favored the evolution of gymnosperms. Describe the three additional adaptations to life on land that first appeared in gymnosperms.Describe the parts and functions of a flower. Explain how flowers attract pollinators and why this is adaptive.Describe the reasons for the ongoing loss of plant diversity and its likely cost to humans
25 DiscussionDistinguish between algae and plants. Describe the functions of the following terrestrial adaptations: stomata, cuticle, lignin, vascular tissue, and gametangia.Describe the process by which algae likely evolved onto land.
26 Discussion: Symbiosis Truffles, p 315Explain why truffles are highly desired, difficult to find, and expensive.Describe the symbiotic relationship between trees and fungi