2 Review….. Fungi- NOT Plants……Why? Heterotrophic- no chlorophyllEukaryotic – multicellularMade up of slender filaments called hyphaeHave cell walls made of chitin (Plant cell walls are made up of cellulose)Decomposers: Secrete enzymes and digest food outside their body, then absorb nutrientsMolds, yeasts, mildews, mushrooms
3 Review… LichenMutualisitic association between a fungi and either a green algae or a cyanobacteriaThe Fungus absorbs water/nutrients from the environment, and the algae uses this for photosynthesis.The fungus absorbs the organic molecules made from photosynthesis for its’ food.Used to test air quality:Algae is very susceptible to Air/water pollution
4 Reproduction Plants have Alternation of Generations Gametophyte: The haploid form of the plant that produces the gametes. Haploid = half the number of chromosomes- Male, femaleIn a moss….this is the ‘carpet’ you seeSporophyte: When 2 gametes fuse they form the sporophyte (the diploid form of the plant)
5 PLANTS NONVASCULAR VASCULAR, seedless Ex: mosses, liverwortsWaxy cuticle covering to survive droughtTransport materials (food) by osmosis and diffusion so need a large water supply, need to be smallReproduce with sporesDominant Gametophyte generation (Haploid)(the ‘carpet’ that you see)Ex: ferns, horsetailsWaxy cuticle covering to survive droughtVascular: larger, more complex. Can carry nutrients from the soil, sun throughout the plantReproduce with sporesDominant Sporophyte generation (Diploid)(leaves that you see)BOTH STILL NEED TO LIVE IN A MOIST ENVIRONMENT FOR REPRODUCTION
6 PLANTS: Vascular, with Seeds GYMNOSPERMS vs ANGIOSPERMS Gymnosperms (gymno = naked; sperma = seed), seeds develop on the surface of the reproductive structures (thus also called the “naked-seed plants”) such as the cones in pine Angiosperms (angio = vessel, receptacle, container), seeds develop within a specialized structure, called an ovary, on the adult sporophyte (also called the “flowering plants”).
7 VASCULAR SYSTEMS XYLEM PHLOEM System of tubes and transport cells that circulate water and dissolved mineralsRings in a cut down tree trunk are the remains of old xylem tissue- one ring for each year of lifeSystem of tubes that transports sugars and other molecules created by the plant from photosynthesisAlways alive- xylem dies after one year and then develops new (the rings of a tree trunk.The dripping sap from a tree usually comes from phloem
8 THEVASCULARSYSTEMXYLEMGoes up From the rootsPHLOEMGoes Down (Or Up)
9 Plants: Vascular: with NAKED Seeds!! GYMNOSPERMS MEGASPORES MICROSPORESFEMALE MALEPOLLENSeeds develop on the surface of the reproductive structuresSporophyte is the dominant generationWhich is the Megaspore? Microspore?Which is the Male pinecone? Female? POLLEN?
10 PLANTS WITH SEEDS: ANGIOSPERMS Flower Basics 1. Label the parts of the flower.PetalsPistilStigmaStyleStamenAntherFilamentOvuleOvarySepalImage:
11 _________________ - The female part of a flower 2. Identify each part of the flower described below using the words in the word list._________________ - The female part of a flower_________________ - A small plant that is just starting to grow_________________ - The place where pollen develops and is stored_________________ - The female sex cell in a plant_________________ - Occurs when the sperm and egg cells unite_________________ - A sugary substance that attracts insects_________________ - The male sex cell in a plant_________________ - The male part of a flower_________________ - The stalk that supports the anther_________________ - The part of the pistil that receives the pollen_________________ - Part that connects the stigma and ovary_________________ - Protective leaf-like enclosure for the flower bud_________________ - The ripened ovary of a plant that contains seeds_________________ - Flower that contains both male and female parts_________________ - Flower that lacks either male or female parts_________________ - The structures that make up the outside of the flower and maybecolored or contain nectar or perfume glandsPISTILSEEDLINGANTHEROVARYFERTILIZATIONNECTARPOLLENSTAMENFILAMENTSTIGMASTYLESEPALFRUITPERFECTIMPERFECTPETALSWord List:AntherFertilizationFilamentFruitImperfectNectarOvaryPerfectPetalsPistilPollenSeedlingSepalsStamenStigmaStyle
12 Ants Bats Bees Moths Birds Butterflies Flies Beetles True Bugs Wasps 3. What is the difference between self-pollination and cross-pollination?SELF-POLLINATION: POLLEN FROM A FLOWER LANDS ON THE PISTIL OF THE SAME FLOWER OR A FLOWER ON THE SAME PLANT.CROSS-POLLINATION: POLLEN FROM A FLOWER LANDS ON THE PISTIL OF THE A FLOWER ON A DIFFERENT PLANT.AntsBatsBeesMothsBirdsButterflies FliesBeetlesTrue BugsWaspsPollinatorsDid you know? Honey bees are the most common pollinators. What insect comes in second place?
13 CotyledonThe stored food for the seed as it develops; the first embryonic leaves of a seed plant-The Number of Cotyledons places the plant in a different CLASS in the Classification System:Monocot: If it has one cotyledonDicot: If it has two cotyledons