Presentation on theme: "Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH, UK Diversity of fungi and potential function in naturally regenerating cut-over peatlands Rebekka Artz, Stephen Chapman,"— Presentation transcript:
Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH, UK Diversity of fungi and potential function in naturally regenerating cut-over peatlands Rebekka Artz, Stephen Chapman, Ian Anderson, and Colin Campbell
Fungal communities in peat Fungi are the primary degraders of plant necromass So far, investigations of fungi have focused on standing plant material or litter only Direct identification or cultivation used Differences in bacterial and archaeal composition of peat horizons shown using molecular techniques - how about fungi? Is fungal community composition an indicator of regeneration?
Site descriptorLocationTime (y) since abandonmentVegetation SC_AMiddlemuir Moss, UK < 5Bare peat SC_BMiddlemuir Moss, UK5-10Sphagnum fallax(> 95%) SC_CMiddlemuir Moss, UK5-10Eriophorum angustifolium (> 70%), E. vaginatum (5-10%), Sp. fallax (15-20%) SC_DMiddlemuir Moss, UK>50Sphagnum spp. (e.g. palustre, capillifolium, fallax; >80%), Mollinia spp.; other mosses FB_ABaupte peatland, France5-10Bare FB_BBaupte peatland, France5-10Eriophorum vaginatum (10-20 %) FR_ARussey, France5-10Bare peat FR_BRussey, France5-10S. fallax, E. angustifolium, E. vaginatum (rare) FR_CRussey, France>50S. fallax, E. angustifolium, E. vaginatum, Calluna vulgaris CH_ALa Chaux d’Abel, Suisse5-10S. fallax (discontinuous), Polytrichum strictum, P. commune, E. vaginatum, Potentilla erecta CH_BLa Chaux d’Abel, SuisseIntermediate CH_CLa Chaux d’Abel, Suisse>40S. fallax (continuous), P. strictum, P. commune, E. vaginatum, Vaccinium spp. FI_AAitoneva, Finland10Eriophorum vaginatum, wet FI_BAitoneva, Finland10Eriophorum vaginatum, dry FI_CAitoneva, Finland10Carex rostrata, wet FI_DAitoneva, Finland10Sphagnum fallax (+others), wet FI_EAitoneva, Finland10Bare peat
2 3 4 6 8 Vascular plant litter (if present)0 – 5 cm moss (if present) or peat 5 – 10 cm moss (if present) or peat 22.5 – 27.5 cm peat 42.5 – 47.5 cm peat
OM decomposition in peat horizons OH Waxes Lignins CHOH SC_D site: > 50 y regeneration
OM decomposition in peat horizons Site SC_B: 5-10 y regeneration, 2 cm of Sp. fallax and Eriophorum spp.
18 S5.8 S28 S ITS1ITS2 ITS1F & ITS4R ITS1F+GC & ITS2R Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis DGGE of fungal ITS
DGGE gel patterns of fungal ITS fragments from SC_B Formamide + urea 30 % 60 %
Cluster analysis on band patterns Differences between peat horizons can be distinguished Lower peat horizons Upper peat horizons
M Undisturbed Milled 1 2 3 1 2 3 Cut-over peat surfaces have lower fungal diversity and generally different community structure
Significant differences between sites Colonised with Sp. fallax, Eriophorum spp.; > 50 y Colonised with Sp. fallax, Eriophorum spp.; 5-10 y Undisturbed peat Bare surface, 5-10 y Older sites of regeneration have band patterns more similar to those of intact sites Horizon 4
Conclusions Cut-over peat surfaces have lower and different fungal diversity to intact surfaces Peat horizons show significantly differing fungal communities, probably due to the nature of available carbon substrates Site-to-site differences Natural regeneration of peat shows fungal communities that become more similar to undisturbed peat over time – an indicator of regeneration?
Acknowledgements RECIPE: Reconciling commercial exploitation of peat with biodiversity of peatland ecosystems (www.macaulay.ac.uk\RECIPE)www.macaulay.ac.uk\RECIPE The many RECIPE partners in Finland, France, Switzerland and Germany