Presentation on theme: "Jeffri Bohlscheid University of Idaho Copyright 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Jeffri Bohlscheid University of Idaho Copyright 2008
After this session the student will be able to understand and explain: The differences between food safety and food quality issues The three major categories of food contamination The causes of food contamination Major causes of food quality problems How to craft an effective response to a customer complaint letter.
It is important for people in the food industry to understand what makes food “bad” or unacceptable to the consumers. Quality is very important Drives what you can charge for a product Keeps your customers coming back and giving you money What do we mean by “bad” ?
“Bad” Looks bad? Smells bad? Tastes bad? Bad texture? Makes me feel bad or sick? Kills me? Are these thing with will stop me from buying a product or, on the other hand, cause me illness or injury?
Have you ever purchased: Rancid or soggy potato chips? Stale bread or other baked goods A green orange? A mushy apple? Moldy cheese? Do you have other ideas?
Have you ever gotten sick or injured from eating something? If you are allergic to something that was not supposed to be in a food? Cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, fever? Bitten into something that was not suppose to be in the food?
These are the differences between food quality and food safety Food quality issues ▪ Loss of expected color, flavor, texture, or nutritional value. ▪ Having off flavors or aroma ▪ Wrong flavors and texture ▪ Loss of nutritional value ▪ Insect parts ▪ Anything that will cause a customer to avoid purchasing your product.
These are the differences between food quality and food safety Food safety issues – Contamination ▪ Presence of particular microorganisms ▪ Presence of unannounced ingredients ▪ Allergens in particular ▪ Pesticides, herbicides, cleaning chemicals ▪ Pieces of glass, metal, wood, bone, or other debris in the food. ▪ Anything that can cause you illness, injury, or death
Biological Bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic organisms and/or their toxins. ▪ Pathogenic Bacteria : ▪ Bacteria that lead to food-borne illnesses. ▪ Some common food related bacteria are: E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium botulinum (botulism). ▪ The organisms and/or their toxins can make one ill ▪ Need appropriate heating to kill bacteria or inactivate toxins
Biological Bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic organisms and/or their toxins. ▪ Pathogenic fungi: ▪ Most fungus or yeast cause illness due to the toxins they produce. ▪ E.g., Mycotoxins such as aflatoxin found in peanuts Ergot in grains ▪ Most fungal toxins attack nervous system or liver ▪ Most often not destroyed in cooking
Spoilage Microbes: ▪ Bacteria, yeast, and molds that cause changes to the taste, texture, and/or odor of a food. They are unlikely to pose a risk of making someone sick. ▪ E.g., ▪ Yeast such as Saccharomyces (used in beer or wine making) fermenting apple juice. ▪ Sour milk ▪ Black spots on apples ▪ “Ropey” yogurt ▪ Fruitiness in cottage cheese
Chemical Naturally Occurring ▪ Unintended additions ▪ Accidental addition of a food component ▪ Proteins associated with allergens. ▪ Can cause lethal drop in blood pressure or constriction of the trachea ▪ Major sources accounting for 90% of food allergic reactions Milk and eggs, Fish, crustaceans, shellfish Tree nuts, peanuts, and soybeans Wheat (gluten).
Chemical Added by man ▪ Residues from the field ▪ Pesticides, fertilizers ▪ Antibiotics remaining in meat or milk ▪ Processing plant chemicals ▪ Cleaners, lubricants, sanitizers, adhesives, inks ▪ Food additives ▪ When they exceed legal levels ▪ Not allowed or approved in specific food items
Physical Items that become part of the food product originating from the natural environment or entering during processing/packaging. Common physical contaminants ▪ Bones, stones, seeds ▪ Metal, glass, plastic, wood, jewelry A physical contaminant is a food safety hazard when is has the potential to cause injury to a consumer. Examples include choking, cutting the mouth, causing a broken tooth.
Take different food products and list the quality factors that you like about them. Categorize them as the color, flavor, texture, and nutritional qualities of the food. What changes or factors would make the product unacceptable to you?
Take different food products and try to think of different ways the food can become contaminated and unsafe to eat (unwholesome) What common types of biological, chemical, or physical contaminants could be associated with these products? How can you prevent them from entering the food or arriving to the consumer?
Doing the right thing quickly will save you pain and suffering
Even with the best intentions and under the most stringent manufacturing conditions, things can go wrong. A customer that loses confidence in your product will not return A rule of thumb in retail is, “if someone is happy with a product they will tell 2 people; if they are unhappy they will tell 10”. Given the popularity of the internet, consumer ratings, and blogging, a bad comment can be disastrous to your business
Injury or death related to a food product can result in millions of dollars in lawsuits, fines, recalls, and lost sales. Losses of your job and those of others Collapse of the company Prison time and fines are also possible if you are found guilty of lying and deceit, or manslaughter or murder
Cases in point Jack in the Box in Seattle (Early 1990s) ▪ E. coli O15:H7 in hamburgers ▪ Full disclosure and documentation of improved food safety Odwalla in California (Late 1990s) ▪ E. coli O15:H7 unpasteurized apple juice ▪ Lies and lawsuits Chino meats in California (2008) ▪ Downer cows ▪ Lies and jail time
What can you do to regain their trust and their money? Think of your reaction to getting sick from eating at a local fast food chain? What if you got a stale, soggy, turkey sandwich with brown lettuce and dried out meat?
Upon receiving a complaint (written or otherwise) Make sure the company lawyers are contacted. Acknowledge their complaint. Don’t argue! If they are mad/scared enough to send a letter, they are pretty mad/scared. Let them know that you value them as a customer and only want to provide a great product at a reasonable price.
Upon receiving a complaint (written or otherwise) You should try to explain the type of problem to them (and possibly how it may have occurred) ▪ You need to interpret the information provided in the complaint letter ▪ Is it a spoilage issue or a serious food borne pathogen? ▪ How serious is this issue – is it an allergen or chemical contamination situation? Explain how you are going to prevent the problem from every occurring again. You should also offer them some sort of compensation depending upon the type of injury or insult they suffered What is reasonable? Your response will determine if you have a repeat customer or become an internet villain.
Write complaint letters (think of the previous activities or something from our experiences) Swap with classmates Now write a response and give back to the author Are they happy with answer? Why or why not?