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Jeffri Bohlscheid University of Idaho Copyright 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Jeffri Bohlscheid University of Idaho Copyright 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jeffri Bohlscheid University of Idaho Copyright 2008

2  After this session the student will be able to understand and explain:  The differences between food safety and food quality issues  The three major categories of food contamination  The causes of food contamination  Major causes of food quality problems  How to craft an effective response to a customer complaint letter.

3  It is important for people in the food industry to understand what makes food “bad” or unacceptable to the consumers.  Quality is very important  Drives what you can charge for a product  Keeps your customers coming back and giving you money  What do we mean by “bad” ?

4  “Bad”  Looks bad?  Smells bad?  Tastes bad?  Bad texture?  Makes me feel bad or sick?  Kills me?  Are these thing with will stop me from buying a product or, on the other hand, cause me illness or injury?

5  Have you ever purchased:  Rancid or soggy potato chips?  Stale bread or other baked goods  A green orange?  A mushy apple?  Moldy cheese?  Do you have other ideas?

6  Have you ever gotten sick or injured from eating something?  If you are allergic to something that was not supposed to be in a food?  Cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, fever?  Bitten into something that was not suppose to be in the food?

7  These are the differences between food quality and food safety  Food quality issues ▪ Loss of expected color, flavor, texture, or nutritional value. ▪ Having off flavors or aroma ▪ Wrong flavors and texture ▪ Loss of nutritional value ▪ Insect parts ▪ Anything that will cause a customer to avoid purchasing your product.

8  These are the differences between food quality and food safety  Food safety issues – Contamination ▪ Presence of particular microorganisms ▪ Presence of unannounced ingredients ▪ Allergens in particular ▪ Pesticides, herbicides, cleaning chemicals ▪ Pieces of glass, metal, wood, bone, or other debris in the food. ▪ Anything that can cause you illness, injury, or death

9  Biological  Bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic organisms and/or their toxins. ▪ Pathogenic Bacteria : ▪ Bacteria that lead to food-borne illnesses. ▪ Some common food related bacteria are: E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium botulinum (botulism). ▪ The organisms and/or their toxins can make one ill ▪ Need appropriate heating to kill bacteria or inactivate toxins

10  Biological  Bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic organisms and/or their toxins. ▪ Pathogenic fungi: ▪ Most fungus or yeast cause illness due to the toxins they produce. ▪ E.g.,  Mycotoxins such as aflatoxin found in peanuts  Ergot in grains ▪ Most fungal toxins attack nervous system or liver ▪ Most often not destroyed in cooking

11  Biological  Bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic organisms and/or their toxins. ▪ Viruses ▪ E.g., Hepatitis  Shellfish collected from contaminated waters ▪ Parasites ▪ Trichina – trichinosis  Undercooked pork or bear meat ▪ Bovine Spongiform Encepilothepy (BSE) ▪ “Mad Cow Disease” ▪ Downer cows ▪ From contaminated feed

12 Spoilage Microbes: ▪ Bacteria, yeast, and molds that cause changes to the taste, texture, and/or odor of a food. They are unlikely to pose a risk of making someone sick. ▪ E.g., ▪ Yeast such as Saccharomyces (used in beer or wine making) fermenting apple juice. ▪ Sour milk ▪ Black spots on apples ▪ “Ropey” yogurt ▪ Fruitiness in cottage cheese

13  Chemical  Naturally Occurring ▪ Unintended additions ▪ Accidental addition of a food component ▪ Proteins associated with allergens. ▪ Can cause lethal drop in blood pressure or constriction of the trachea ▪ Major sources accounting for 90% of food allergic reactions  Milk and eggs,  Fish, crustaceans, shellfish  Tree nuts, peanuts, and soybeans  Wheat (gluten).

14  Chemical  Added by man ▪ Residues from the field ▪ Pesticides, fertilizers ▪ Antibiotics remaining in meat or milk ▪ Processing plant chemicals ▪ Cleaners, lubricants, sanitizers, adhesives, inks ▪ Food additives ▪ When they exceed legal levels ▪ Not allowed or approved in specific food items

15  Physical  Items that become part of the food product originating from the natural environment or entering during processing/packaging.  Common physical contaminants ▪ Bones, stones, seeds ▪ Metal, glass, plastic, wood, jewelry  A physical contaminant is a food safety hazard when is has the potential to cause injury to a consumer.  Examples include choking, cutting the mouth, causing a broken tooth.

16  Take different food products and list the quality factors that you like about them.  Categorize them as the color, flavor, texture, and nutritional qualities of the food.  What changes or factors would make the product unacceptable to you?

17  Take different food products and try to think of different ways the food can become contaminated and unsafe to eat (unwholesome)  What common types of biological, chemical, or physical contaminants could be associated with these products?  How can you prevent them from entering the food or arriving to the consumer?

18 Doing the right thing quickly will save you pain and suffering

19  Even with the best intentions and under the most stringent manufacturing conditions, things can go wrong.  A customer that loses confidence in your product will not return  A rule of thumb in retail is, “if someone is happy with a product they will tell 2 people; if they are unhappy they will tell 10”.  Given the popularity of the internet, consumer ratings, and blogging, a bad comment can be disastrous to your business

20  Injury or death related to a food product can result in millions of dollars in lawsuits, fines, recalls, and lost sales.  Losses of your job and those of others  Collapse of the company  Prison time and fines are also possible if you are found guilty of lying and deceit, or manslaughter or murder

21  Cases in point  Jack in the Box in Seattle (Early 1990s) ▪ E. coli O15:H7 in hamburgers ▪ Full disclosure and documentation of improved food safety  Odwalla in California (Late 1990s) ▪ E. coli O15:H7 unpasteurized apple juice ▪ Lies and lawsuits  Chino meats in California (2008) ▪ Downer cows ▪ Lies and jail time

22  What can you do to regain their trust and their money?  Think of your reaction to getting sick from eating at a local fast food chain?  What if you got a stale, soggy, turkey sandwich with brown lettuce and dried out meat?

23  Upon receiving a complaint (written or otherwise)  Make sure the company lawyers are contacted.  Acknowledge their complaint. Don’t argue!  If they are mad/scared enough to send a letter, they are pretty mad/scared.  Let them know that you value them as a customer and only want to provide a great product at a reasonable price.

24  Upon receiving a complaint (written or otherwise)  You should try to explain the type of problem to them (and possibly how it may have occurred) ▪ You need to interpret the information provided in the complaint letter ▪ Is it a spoilage issue or a serious food borne pathogen? ▪ How serious is this issue – is it an allergen or chemical contamination situation?  Explain how you are going to prevent the problem from every occurring again.  You should also offer them some sort of compensation depending upon the type of injury or insult they suffered  What is reasonable?  Your response will determine if you have a repeat customer or become an internet villain.

25  Write complaint letters (think of the previous activities or something from our experiences)  Swap with classmates  Now write a response and give back to the author  Are they happy with answer? Why or why not?

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