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Judith E. Brown Prof. Albia Dugger Miami-Dade College The Multiple Dimensions of Food Safety Unit 32.

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Presentation on theme: "Judith E. Brown Prof. Albia Dugger Miami-Dade College The Multiple Dimensions of Food Safety Unit 32."— Presentation transcript:

1 Judith E. Brown Prof. Albia Dugger Miami-Dade College The Multiple Dimensions of Food Safety Unit 32

2 Threats to Food Safety Each year, US foodborne illnesses cause: Sickness in 76 million people 325,000 hospitalizations Over 5,000 deaths

3 Key Terms Foodborne illness Illness related to consumption of foods or beverages containing disease-causing bacteria, viruses, marine organisms, fungi, toxins, parasites, or other contaminants

4 How Good Foods Go Bad The most common contaminants (bacteria and viruses) enter the food supply during food processing, storage, or preparation Contamination through feces is common From intestines in meat processing From animal manure used on vegetable crops From handling by people with dirty hands

5 Potential for Spreading Foodborne Illness

6 Contaminants In Foods Foods can be contaminated from the inside Eggs of chickens infected with Salmonella Shellfish that filter contaminants from water Bacteria that enter fruits and vegetables with broken skins

7 Cross-Contamination Cross-contamination occurs when food that is contaminated comes into contact with another food At food processing plants During preparation at home

8 Other Substances in Foods Foods can be contaminated with other substances that have been intentionally or unintentionally added Antibiotics Hormones Pesticides and PCBs

9 Antibiotic Resistance Farm-raised animals are commonly given antibiotics in feed Microorganisms become resistant to the antibiotics and infect people – and infections caused by antibiotic-resistant organisms are difficult to treat

10 Hormones Farm-raised animals are commonly given hormones to promote growth or improve milk production The safety of consuming meat and milk products containing these hormones is under investigation

11 Pesticides and PCBs Pesticides containing organophosphates, mercury-containing fungicides, and DDT can cause foodborne illnesses PCBs from contaminated land and water have been linked to cancer

12 Pesticides and PCBs <1 in 10,000 foods contain excessive pesticide levels Farm workers are at greatest risk

13 Causes of Foodborne Illness Over 250 types of foodborne illnesses caused by infectious and noninfectious agents have been identified Effects range from nausea and diarrhea to death within minutes

14 High-Risk Groups

15 Top 4 Causes

16 Salmonella CDC estimates >1.4 million cases of Salmonella infection occur each year 5% of US population experience a Salmonella infection each year

17 Other Causes: Seafood Illnesses caused by seafood contaminated by water pollution Mercury poisoning Ciguatera poisoning Red tide poisoning

18 Seafood Mercury contamination In large fish from mercury-contaminated waters Ciguatera (neurotoxin) In fish from reefs with toxic dinoflagellates Red tide (neurotoxin) In shellfish that eat toxic microorganisms

19 Ciguatera Poisoning Tropical reef fish eat toxic dinoflagellates Poison cannot be destroyed, and there is no effective treatment

20 Other Causes: Botulism C. botulinum bacteria produce deadly toxin in airtight containers Foods in bulging containers should not be eaten

21 Other Causes: Parasites Parasitic tapeworms, flatworms, and roundworms enter food and water through fecal material and soil Most are killed by cooking or freezing

22 Other Causes: Mad Cow Disease Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) Deadly disease caused by an infectious protein (prion) – not destroyed by cooking Started when cows were fed sheep body parts Transmitted to humans who ate infected cows Human disease may take 20 years to develop

23 Preventing Foodborne Illness There are two major approaches to prevention of foodborne illness: Regulations that control food processing and handling practices Consumer behaviors that reduce risk of consuming contaminated food

24 Food Safety Regulations The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act regulates all substances added intentionally or accidentally to foods – except pesticides Pesticides with a negligible risk of health problem are permitted in foods

25 Irradiation of Foods Irradiation destroys bacteria, parasites, and viruses in foods Irradiation does not destroy prions, toxins, pesticides, mercury or PCBs – or prevent later contamination

26 The Consumers Role Food Safety Basics: Scrub your hands thoroughly with soap and water for at least 20 seconds Cook foods thoroughly; keep hot foods above 140°F, and cold foods below 40°F Dont consume raw milk, meat, or eggs Follow USDA safe handling instructions Throw away canned foods that bulge out

27 Safe Cooking Temperatures

28 Safe Handling Temperatures

29 Safe Storage

30 USDA Safe Handling Instructions

31 Take Action: Until contamination of food is prevented, consumers must take responsibility for reducing risks of foodborne illnesses Buy locally grown produce Plant a vegetable garden Buy irradiated raw meats Buy only pasteurized dairy products

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