Presentation on theme: "and how to avoid plagiarism"— Presentation transcript:
1 and how to avoid plagiarism Referencing your workand how to avoid plagiarism
2 Referencing in context AssignmentEvidence to support your ideas or argumentAcknowledge sources usedBriefly, in your textIn full, at the endRead and Take NotesParaphraseDirectquote
3 Outline What is a reference? Why reference? When to reference How to reference:Within your assignmentAt the end of your assignment
4 What is a Reference?An acknowledgement that you have referred to (cited) information from published sources in your own work.In other words, a recognitionthat you have borrowed otherpeople’s work, ideas or opinions.
5 Why Reference? Shows off your research! Published evidence to support your own ideas/argument/point of view or give examplesPlagiarism - using other people’s work and ideas as your own without acknowledgementCopyrightHelps others to trace your informationsourcesPart of the marking scheme
6 When to Reference A particular theory, argument or viewpoint Statistics, examples, case studies“Direct quotations” - writer’s exact words. Use sparingly!Paraphrasing
7 How to Reference There are various systems for referencing: Harvard system (Author/Date) is recommended at the UniversityYou need to reference in twoplaces:Brief details, within the main body ofyour assignmentFull details, at the end of yourassignment
8 How to Reference: Direct Quotations AUTHOR, DATE, PAGE NUMBER(S)As Hall (2000, p.59) states, “pharmacy encompasses all aspects of drug preparation and dispensing.”According to Sheridan (2002, p.216), “community pharmacy has long been an important part of the addiction treatment response in the UK.”Pharmaceutical care has been described as “the responsible provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve a patient’s quality of life” (Hall, 2000, p.169).Larger quotes (3 lines +): Start quote on newline and indent. No need to use quotation marks.
9 Useful verbs and phrases to use with direct quotes As X states/ believes/ suggests /indicates/ points out / observes/ explains/ argues/ outlines/ contradicts / proposes, “…….”.For example, X has argued that “……”.According to X, “…….”.X suggests/ believes/ observesthat “…..”.
10 How to reference paraphrases AUTHOR, DATEResearch has shown that the majority of patients believe supplementary prescribing by pharmacists is a good idea (Smalley, 2006).
11 Referencing at the end of your assignment What should your Reference List contain?a single list, arranged alphabetically by author, of everything you have specifically mentioned in your assignment
12 What information do I need to include? Name(s) of the Author(s)TitleWhen and where it was publishedWho published itWeb site address and date you looked at it
14 Referencing Journal Articles Author S. J HealYear of publication 2006Title of article What do GPs think about joint formularies?Title of journal The Pharmaceutical JournalVolume number (if present) 276Part number (if present) 7387Page number(s)Heal, S.J. (2006) ‘What do GPs think about joint formularies?’ The Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 276, no. 7387: pp
15 Referencing a Web site Author/editor/organisation Year written (or last updated)TitleURLDate you accessed itFor future reference, print andkeep a copy of the web page
16 URLPockock, N. (2006) Nicotine therapy not as effective as previously thought? [online] Available at: < [Accessed 1st August 2006]TitleDateAuthor
17 More ExamplesNational Pharmacy Association (2006) Sunscreen and safety [online] Available at: < [Accessed 1st August 2006]Moody, M. et al (2004) ‘Would community pharmacists welcome electronic access to patients’ clinical data’ The Pharmaceutical Journal, no. 7283: pp.94-97Fisher, R. (2006) Information technology for pharmacists. London: Pharmaceutical Press.Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (no date) Information about medicines [online] Available at: < [Accessed 1st August 2006]
18 What is plagiarism? Two definitions the practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own.copying , infringement of copyright , piracy , theft , stealing.
19 Actions that might be seen as plagiarism Buying, stealing or borrowing a paperUsing the source too closely when paraphrasingPaying someone to write your paperBuilding on someone’s ideas without citationCopying from another source without citing (on purpose or by accident)
20 Avoiding plagiarismIn order to avoid plagiarism, you must give credit when:You use another person's ideas, opinions, or theories.You use quotations from another person's spoken or written word.You paraphrase another person's spoken or written word.You use facts, statistics, graphics, drawings, music, etc., or any other type of information that does not comprise common knowledge.
21 What is common knowledge? Common knowledge is information the average reader would know.How do you determine if something is common knowledge? Ask yourself if you knew the information already. If you didn't, the information is not common knowledge.Even so, what is common knowledge for you may not be common knowledge for someone else.The best rule is when in doubt, cite!