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and how to avoid plagiarism

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Presentation on theme: "and how to avoid plagiarism"— Presentation transcript:

1 and how to avoid plagiarism
Referencing your work and how to avoid plagiarism

2 Referencing in context
Assignment Evidence to support your ideas or argument Acknowledge sources used Briefly, in your text In full, at the end Read and Take Notes Paraphrase Direct quote

3 Outline What is a reference? Why reference? When to reference
How to reference: Within your assignment At the end of your assignment

4 What is a Reference? An acknowledgement that you have referred to (cited) information from published sources in your own work. In other words, a recognition that you have borrowed other people’s work, ideas or opinions.

5 Why Reference? Shows off your research!
Published evidence to support your own ideas/argument/point of view or give examples Plagiarism - using other people’s work and ideas as your own without acknowledgement Copyright Helps others to trace your information sources Part of the marking scheme

6 When to Reference A particular theory, argument or viewpoint
Statistics, examples, case studies “Direct quotations” - writer’s exact words. Use sparingly! Paraphrasing

7 How to Reference There are various systems for referencing:
Harvard system (Author/Date) is recommended at the University You need to reference in two places: Brief details, within the main body of your assignment Full details, at the end of your assignment

8 How to Reference: Direct Quotations
AUTHOR, DATE, PAGE NUMBER(S) As Hall (2000, p.59) states, “pharmacy encompasses all aspects of drug preparation and dispensing.” According to Sheridan (2002, p.216), “community pharmacy has long been an important part of the addiction treatment response in the UK.” Pharmaceutical care has been described as “the responsible provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve a patient’s quality of life” (Hall, 2000, p.169). Larger quotes (3 lines +): Start quote on new line and indent. No need to use quotation marks.

9 Useful verbs and phrases to use with direct quotes
As X states/ believes/ suggests /indicates/ points out / observes/ explains/ argues/ outlines/ contradicts / proposes, “…….”. For example, X has argued that “……”. According to X, “…….”. X suggests/ believes/ observes that “…..”.

10 How to reference paraphrases
AUTHOR, DATE Research has shown that the majority of patients believe supplementary prescribing by pharmacists is a good idea (Smalley, 2006).

11 Referencing at the end of your assignment
What should your Reference List contain? a single list, arranged alphabetically by author, of everything you have specifically mentioned in your assignment

12 What information do I need to include?
Name(s) of the Author(s) Title When and where it was published Who published it Web site address and date you looked at it

13 Referencing books Using the title page (not the front cover) note the:
Author(s) Michael E. Aulton Title Pharmaceutics: the science of dosage form design Year of Publication © 2002 Edition (if not the first) 2nd edition Place of publication Edinburgh Publisher Churchill Livingstone Aulton, M.E. (2002) Pharmaceutics: the science of dosage form design 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

14 Referencing Journal Articles
Author S. J Heal Year of publication 2006 Title of article What do GPs think about joint formularies? Title of journal The Pharmaceutical Journal Volume number (if present) 276 Part number (if present) 7387 Page number(s) Heal, S.J. (2006) ‘What do GPs think about joint formularies?’ The Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 276, no. 7387: pp

15 Referencing a Web site Author/editor/organisation
Year written (or last updated) Title URL Date you accessed it For future reference, print and keep a copy of the web page

16 URL Pockock, N. (2006) Nicotine therapy not as effective as previously thought? [online] Available at: < [Accessed 1st August 2006] Title Date Author

17 More Examples National Pharmacy Association (2006) Sunscreen and safety [online] Available at: < [Accessed 1st August 2006] Moody, M. et al (2004) ‘Would community pharmacists welcome electronic access to patients’ clinical data’ The Pharmaceutical Journal, no. 7283: pp.94-97 Fisher, R. (2006) Information technology for pharmacists. London: Pharmaceutical Press. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (no date) Information about medicines [online] Available at: < [Accessed 1st August 2006]

18 What is plagiarism? Two definitions
the practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own. copying , infringement of copyright , piracy , theft , stealing.

19 Actions that might be seen as plagiarism
Buying, stealing or borrowing a paper Using the source too closely when paraphrasing Paying someone to write your paper Building on someone’s ideas without citation Copying from another source without citing (on purpose or by accident)

20 Avoiding plagiarism In order to avoid plagiarism, you must give credit when: You use another person's ideas, opinions, or theories. You use quotations from another person's spoken or written word. You paraphrase another person's spoken or written word. You use facts, statistics, graphics, drawings, music, etc., or any other type of information that does not comprise common knowledge.

21 What is common knowledge?
Common knowledge is information the average reader would know. How do you determine if something is common knowledge? Ask yourself if you knew the information already. If you didn't, the information is not common knowledge. Even so, what is common knowledge for you may not be common knowledge for someone else. The best rule is when in doubt, cite!

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