Presentation on theme: "Referencing your work and how to avoid plagiarism."— Presentation transcript:
Referencing your work and how to avoid plagiarism
Referencing in context Read and Take Notes Assignment Evidence to support your ideas or argument Paraphrase Direct quote Acknowledge sources used Briefly, in your text In full, at the end
Outline What is a reference? Why reference? When to reference How to reference: Within your assignment At the end of your assignment
What is a Reference? An acknowledgement that you have referred to (cited) information from published sources in your own work. In other words, a recognition that you have borrowed other peoples work, ideas or opinions.
Why Reference? Shows off your research! Published evidence to support your own ideas/argument/point of view or give examples Plagiarism - using other peoples work and ideas as your own without acknowledgement Copyright Helps others to trace your information sources Part of the marking scheme
When to Reference A particular theory, argument or viewpoint Statistics, examples, case studies Direct quotations - writers exact words. Use sparingly! Paraphrasing
How to Reference There are various systems for referencing: Harvard system (Author/Date) is recommended at the University You need to reference in two places: Brief details, within the main body of your assignment Full details, at the end of your assignment
How to Reference: Direct Quotations As Hall (2000, p.59) states, pharmacy encompasses all aspects of drug preparation and dispensing. According to Sheridan (2002, p.216), community pharmacy has long been an important part of the addiction treatment response in the UK. AUTHOR, DATE, PAGE NUMBER(S) Larger quotes (3 lines +): Start quote on new line and indent. No need to use quotation marks. Pharmaceutical care has been described as the responsible provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve a patients quality of life (Hall, 2000, p.169).
Useful verbs and phrases to use with direct quotes As X states/ believes/ suggests /indicates/ points out / observes/ explains/ argues/ outlines/ contradicts / proposes, …….. For example, X has argued that ……. According to X, …….. X suggests/ believes/ observes that …...
How to reference paraphrases Research has shown that the majority of patients believe supplementary prescribing by pharmacists is a good idea (Smalley, 2006). AUTHOR, DATE
Referencing at the end of your assignment What should your Reference List contain? a single list, arranged alphabetically by author, of everything you have specifically mentioned in your assignment
What information do I need to include? Name(s) of the Author(s) Title When and where it was published Who published it Web site address and date you looked at it
Referencing Journal Articles AuthorS. J Heal Year of publication 2006 Title of article What do GPs think about joint formularies? Title of journal The Pharmaceutical Journal Volume number (if present) 276 Part number (if present)7387 Page number(s) Heal, S.J. (2006) What do GPs think about joint formularies? The Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 276, no. 7387: pp
Referencing a Web site Author/editor/organisation Year written (or last updated) Title URL Date you accessed it For future reference, print and keep a copy of the web page
URL Title Date Author Pockock, N. (2006) Nicotine therapy not as effective as previously thought? [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 st August 2006]
More Examples Fisher, R. (2006) Information technology for pharmacists. London: Pharmaceutical Press. Moody, M. et al (2004) Would community pharmacists welcome electronic access to patients clinical data The Pharmaceutical Journal, no. 7283: pp Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (no date) Information about medicines [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 st August 2006] National Pharmacy Association (2006) Sunscreen and safety [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 st August 2006]
What is plagiarism? Two definitions the practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own. copying, infringement of copyright, piracy, theft, stealing.
Actions that might be seen as plagiarism Buying, stealing or borrowing a paper Using the source too closely when paraphrasing Paying someone to write your paper Building on someones ideas without citation Copying from another source without citing (on purpose or by accident)
Avoiding plagiarism In order to avoid plagiarism, you must give credit when: You use another person's ideas, opinions, or theories. You use quotations from another person's spoken or written word. You paraphrase another person's spoken or written word. You use facts, statistics, graphics, drawings, music, etc., or any other type of information that does not comprise common knowledge.
What is common knowledge? Common knowledge is information the average reader would know. How do you determine if something is common knowledge? Ask yourself if you knew the information already. If you didn't, the information is not common knowledge. Even so, what is common knowledge for you may not be common knowledge for someone else. The best rule is when in doubt, cite!