2 Quality ManagementIn small groups discuss the questions “What Is Quality?”
3 Quality Management Quality is consistent conformance to customers expectations(an operations view – Slack et al)
4 Quality ManagementQuality is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations. “Meeting customer needs” (John Oakland)
5 Quality ManagementQuality is “conformance to requirements” (Philip B. Crosby 1984) Quality is “fitness for use” (Joseph Juran 1986) Quality of a product or services is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customer
6 Quality ManagementThe totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs ( IS0 8402) (1986)
7 Quality ManagementThe degree of conformance of all the relevant features and characteristics of the product (or service) to all aspects of a customers needs, limited by the price and delivery he or she will accept. (Groocock 1986)
8 Quality ManagementQuality can be;QualitativeQuantitative
9 Quality Management Quality is based on 5 characteristics Technological e.g. strength & hardnessPsychological e.g. taste, beauty, statusTime-oriented e.g. reliability & maintainabilityContractual e.g. guarantee provisionsEthics e.g. courtesy, honesty(Juran 1988)
10 Quality Management Four Dimensions of quality may be defined for the production of goods &services:-Quality of designQuality of conformanceThe "abilities"Field service
11 Quality Management Different Types of Quality Fitness for useQuality of designQuality of conformanceAvailabilityField serviceQuality of market researchQuality of conceptQuality of specificationTechnologyManpowerManagementReliabilityMaintainabilityLogistical SupportPromptnessCompetenceIntegrityDifferent Types of Quality(Juran, Gryna & Bingham, "Quality Control Hand Book" 1988)
12 Quality ManagementQuality of Design This takes place before production of the product or service. It is usually determined by the market place. Quality of Conformance This is producing to the specification Availability This has a time dimension Field Service This is an intangible and is the provision of "after sales service"
13 Development of Quality Statistical process control chartsTables for acceptance sampling1940’s - Statistical sampling techniques1950’s - Quality assurance/TQC1960’s - Zero defects1970’s - Quality assurance in services
14 The History of Quality Guild Halls - standards (materials, products, practices, conditions).Industrialisationsupervisors - growing responsibility for quality - formal quality inspection.
15 The History of Quality Post WW1 - sophistication - stats, societies, standards (military, civil, international).Post WW2- Japanese adopt and adapt quality methods
16 Quality ManagementIn small groups discuss - Problems On Your Web Site
17 What can fail on your site ? Domain name wrong or not usableBroken links, broken sServer load – too many hits on the siteClient side performance –down load timeSecurity isn’t workingContent is out of dateBrowser incompatibility, HTML doesn’t validateInterface – navigation, link colourGraphics missing or too largeScripts don’t work - forms, databasesIsn’t accessible to those with disabilities
18 What you can test Functional testing Compatibility testing Load/performance testingStress testingUsability testingSecurity testingIntegration of unit testingLink testingHTML ValidationReliability testingRegression testing
20 The Deming Cycle or PDCA Cycle PLANCHECKDOACTPlan a change to the process. Predict the effect this change will have and plan how the effects will be measuredImplement the change on a small scale and measure the effectsAdopt the change as a permanent modification to the process, or abandon it.Study the results to learn what effect the change had, if any.
21 Cause and Effect Analysis (Fish-Bone or Ishikawa Diagrams)• Helps the group to visualise the problem• Encourages divergent thinking but along a logical path• Provides diagram for easy discussion• Based on brainstorming but more visual
23 Service Quality Dimensions Word of MouthPersonal NeedsPast ExperienceDimensions of Service QualityReliabilityResponsivenessAssuranceEmpathyTangiblesPerceived Service QualityES<PSQuality SurpriseES=PSSatisfactoryES>PSUnacceptable QualityExpected ServicePerceived Service
24 Service Process Control CustomerinputServiceconceptCustomeroutputResourcesServiceprocessTakecorrectiveactionMonitorconformance torequirementsEstablishmeasure ofperformanceIdentify reasonfornonconformance
25 What the Customer wanted What Marketing suggestedWhat Management approvedWhat product Development designedWhat Sales deliveredWhat Customer Care negotiated
26 Quality Gap Model The Customers Domain The operations domain Previous experienceWord of mouth CommunicationsImage of product or serviceGap 4Customers' expectations concerning a product or serviceCustomers'perceptions concerning the product or servicePerceived qualityIs there a gap?Customers' own specification of qualityGap 1The actual product or serviceManagement's concept of the product or serviceOrganisations specification of qualityGap 3The operations domainGap 2
27 The Gaps Gap Action required to ensure high perceived quality Main organisationalresponsibilitiesGap 1The customer'sspecificationoperation gapEnsure there is consistency between theinternal quality specification of theproduct or service and the expectations ofthe customerMarketingOperationsProduct/Service developmentGap 2specification-Ensure the internal specification ofproduct or service meets its intendedconcept or designGap 3The qualityactual qualitygapEnsure that the actual product or serviceconforms to its internally specified qualitylevelGap 4The actualQualitycommunicatedimage gapEnsure that the promises made tocustomers concerning the product orservice can in reality
28 Gaps in Service Quality Word -of-mouthcommunicationsPersonal needsPast experienceCustomerExpected serviceGAP 5Perceived serviceService delivery (includingpre- and post-contacts)External communicationsto consumersGAP 3GAP 1GAP 4Translation of perceptions intoservice quality specificationsGAP 2ProviderManagement perceptions ofconsumer expectations
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