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Quality Management What is Quality? 1. Quality Management In small groups discuss the questions “What Is Quality?” 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Quality Management What is Quality? 1. Quality Management In small groups discuss the questions “What Is Quality?” 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Quality Management What is Quality? 1

2 Quality Management In small groups discuss the questions “What Is Quality?” 2

3 Quality Management Quality is consistent conformance to customers expectations (an operations view – Slack et al) 3

4 Quality Management Quality is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations. “Meeting customer needs” (John Oakland) 4

5 Quality Management Quality is “conformance to requirements” (Philip B. Crosby 1984) Quality is “fitness for use” (Joseph Juran 1986) Quality of a product or services is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customer 5

6 Quality Management The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs ( IS0 8402) (1986) 6

7 Quality Management The degree of conformance of all the relevant features and characteristics of the product (or service) to all aspects of a customers needs, limited by the price and delivery he or she will accept. (Groocock 1986) 7

8 Quality Management Quality can be; 1. Qualitative 2. Quantitative 8

9 Quality Management Quality is based on 5 characteristics Technological e.g. strength & hardness Psychological e.g. taste, beauty, status Time-oriented e.g. reliability & maintainability Contractual e.g. guarantee provisions Ethics e.g. courtesy, honesty (Juran 1988) 9

10 Quality Management Four Dimensions of quality may be defined for the production of goods & services:- 1. Quality of design 2. Quality of conformance 3. The "abilities" 4. Field service 10

11 Quality Management 11 Fitness for use Quality of design Quality of conformance Availability Field service Quality of market research Quality of concept Quality of specification Technology Manpower Management Reliability Maintainability Logistical Support Promptness Competence Integrity Different Types of Quality (Juran, Gryna & Bingham, "Quality Control Hand Book" 1988)

12 Quality Management Quality of Design This takes place before production of the product or service. It is usually determined by the market place. Quality of Conformance This is producing to the specification Availability This has a time dimension Field Service This is an intangible and is the provision of "after sales service" 12

13 Development of Quality Statistical process control charts Tables for acceptance sampling 1940’s - Statistical sampling techniques 1950’s - Quality assurance/TQC 1960’s - Zero defects 1970’s - Quality assurance in services 13

14 The History of Quality Guild Halls - standards (materials, products, practices, conditions ). Industrialisation - supervisors - growing responsibility for quality - formal quality inspection. 14

15 The History of Quality Post WW1 - sophistication - stats, societies, standards (military, civil, international). Post WW2 - Japanese adopt and adapt quality methods 15

16 Quality Management In small groups discuss - Problems On Your Web Site 16

17 What can fail on your site ? ◦ Domain name wrong or not usable ◦ Broken links, broken s ◦ Server load – too many hits on the site ◦ Client side performance –down load time ◦ Security isn’t working ◦ Content is out of date ◦ Browser incompatibility, HTML doesn’t validate ◦ Interface – navigation, link colour ◦ Graphics missing or too large ◦ Scripts don’t work - forms, databases ◦ Isn’t accessible to those with disabilities 17

18 What you can test ◦ Functional testing ◦ Compatibility testing ◦ Load/performance testing ◦ Stress testing ◦ Usability testing ◦ Security testing ◦ Integration of unit testing ◦ Link testing ◦ HTML Validation ◦ Reliability testing ◦ Regression testing 18

19 Why have quality?

20 The Deming Cycle or PDCA Cycle PLAN CHECK DOACT Plan a change to the process. Predict the effect this change will have and plan how the effects will be measured Implement the change on a small scale and measure the effects Adopt the change as a permanent modification to the process, or abandon it. Study the results to learn what effect the change had, if any.

21 Cause and Effect Analysis (Fish-Bone or Ishikawa Diagrams) Helps the group to visualise the problem Encourages divergent thinking but along a logical path Provides diagram for easy discussion Based on brainstorming but more visual

22 Perceptions of Quality

23 Service Quality Dimensions Word of Mouth Personal Needs Past Experience Dimensions of Service Quality Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Empathy Tangibles Dimensions of Service Quality Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Empathy Tangibles Perceived Service Quality ESPS Unacceptable Quality Perceived Service Quality ESPS Unacceptable Quality Expected Service Perceived Service

24 Service Process Control Resources Identify reason fornonconformance Establish measure of performanceMonitor conformance to requirementsTakecorrectiveaction Serviceconcept Customerinput Customeroutput Serviceprocess

25 What the Customer wanted What Marketing suggested What Management approved What product Development designed What Sales deliveredWhat Customer Care negotiated

26 Quality Gap Model Previous experience Word of mouth Communication s Image of product or service Customers' expectations concerning a product or service Customers 'perceptions concerning the product or service Customers 'perceptions concerning the product or service Customers' own specification of quality The actual product or service Management's concept of the product or service Organisations specification of quality Perceive d quality Is there a gap? Gap 2 Gap 3 Gap 1 Gap 4 The Customers Domain The operations domain

27 The Gaps Gap Action required to ensure high perceived quality Main organisational responsibilities Gap 1 The customer's specification operation gap Ensure there is consistency between the internal quality specification of the product or service and the expectations of the customer MarketingOperations Product/Service development Gap 2 The customer's specification- operation gap Ensure the internal specification of product or service meets its intended concept or design MarketingOperations Product/Service development Gap 3 The quality specification actual quality gap Ensure that the actual product or service conforms to its internally specified quality levelOperations Gap 4 The actual Qualitycommunicated image gap Ensure that the promises made to customers concerning the product or service can in reality Marketing

28 Customer Gaps in Service Quality Word -of-mouth communications Personal needs Past experience Expected service External communications to consumers Perceived service Service delivery (including pre- and post-contacts) Translation of perceptions into service quality specifications Management perceptions of consumer expectations GAP 5 GAP 3 GAP 2 GAP 1 GAP 4 Provider

29 The Quality Chain


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