3QualityThe ability of a product or service to meet or exceed customer expectations.The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.The customer’s perception of the degree to which a product or service is fit for purpose.
4QualityThe business meanings of quality have developed over time. Various interpretations are given below:ISO 9000: "Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.“The standard defines requirement as need and expectation.
5Quality Philip B. Crosby: "Conformance to requirements." Joseph M. Juran: "Fitness for use.“Fitness is defined by the customer.Genichi Taguchi: "Uniformity around a target value.“The idea is to lower the standard deviation in outcomes, and to keep the range of outcomes to a certain number of standard deviations, with rare exceptions.
6QualityAmerican Society for Quality: "The characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.”W. Edwards Deming: concentrating on "the efficient production of the quality that the market expects," and he linked quality and management:"Costs go down and productivity goes up as improvement of quality is accomplished by better management of design, engineering, testing and by improvement of processes."
7Terms of DefinitionsCustomer Satisfaction: Customer’s perception of the degree to which the customer’s requirements have been fulfilled.Quality Management System: Management System to direct and control an organization with regard to quality.Quality Improvement: Part of QM focused on increasing the ability to fulfill quality requirements.
8Terms of DefinitionsQuality Policy: Overall intentions and direction of an organization with regard to quality.Quality Planning: Part of QM focused on setting quality objectives and specifying necessary operational processes and related resources to fulfill the quality objectives.Quality Objective: something sought, or aimed for, relating to quality.
9Terms of DefinitionsCorrective action: Action taken to eliminate the cause of a detected non-conformity or other undesirable situation.Prevention action: Action taken to eliminate the cause of a potential non-conformity or other potentially undesirable situation.
10The Quality Evolution 1. Inspection 2. Quality Control (QC) Inspect products2. Quality Control (QC)Operational techniques to make inspection more efficient and to the cost of quality (example: SPC)
11The Quality Evolution 3. Quality Assurance (QA) Planned and systematic actions to insure that products or services conform to company requirements.4. Total Quality Management (TQM)Incorporates QC/QA activities into a company-wide system aimed at satisfying the customer (involves all organizational functions)
12Cost of Quality Appraisal Costs Prevention Costs Costs of activities designed to ensure quality or uncover defectsPrevention CostsAll TQ training, TQ planning, customer assessment, process control, and quality improvement costs to prevent defects from occurring
13Cost of QualityFailure Costs - costs incurred by defective parts/products or faulty services.Internal Failure CostsCosts incurred to fix problems that are detected before the product/service is delivered to the customer.External Failure CostsAll costs incurred to fix problems that are detected after the product/service is delivered to the customer.
15Total Quality Management (Definition) Total - Make up of the wholeQuality - degree of excellence a product or service providesManagement - Act, art or manner of planning, controlling, directing,….Therefore, TQM is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence.
16Total Quality Management (Definition) A philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction.
17Total Quality Management (Definition) Total Quality Management means that the organization's culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and training. This involves the continuous improvement of organizational processes, resulting in high quality products and services.
18TQM system consists of: Culture or PhilosophyPrinciplesTools and Techniques
19The Culture of TQMThe culture of the company has a major impact on the opportunities of TQM applying.The applying of TQM requires a cultural change of the company.The employees and managers have to be convinced about the importance of TQM.If companies feel the necessity to change, and have the capacity to carry out the change, then TQM gets greater support and is easier to be implemented.
21Customer –Driven Quality Principles of TQMCustomer –Driven QualityOrganizations must listen to the “voice of customer” and emphasize design quality and defect prevention.“Do it right first time and every time”, for customer satisfaction is the most important consideration.
22Top Management Commitment Principles of TQMTop Management CommitmentCreating and deploying clear quality values and goals consistent with the objectives of the company.well defined systems, methods and performance measures for achieving these goals.
23Continuous Improvement Principles of TQMContinuous ImprovementContinuous improvement of the quality of the product is seen as the only way to maintain a high level of customer satisfaction.Technical techniques such as SPC, benchmarking, ISO 9000, are excellent for problem solving which help in applying continual improve processes.
24Principles of TQM Employees Participation and Development Everyone is responsible.All people must be trained in TQM.People come to work not only to do their jobs, but also to think about how to improve their jobs.People must be empowered to perform processes in an optimum manner at the lowest possible level.
25Treating Suppliers as Partners Principles of TQMTreating Suppliers as PartnersAn organisation and its suppliers are interdependent and a mutually beneficial relationship enhances the ability of both to create value.
26Principles of TQM Fast Response the success of any firm or organization exactly depends on the response to changes in order to improve products and services.
27Principles of TQM Management by Facts The management of quality must have actual and accurate information and data.Effective decisions are based on the analysis of data and information.
28Design Quality and Prevention Principles of TQMDesign Quality and PreventionThis is should be from the design steps of the products or services until introducing the product to the market and customers.
29Tools and Techniques of TQM Process Chart and Flow ChartPareto AnalysisThe Ishikawa DiagramHistogram ChartRun Diagram and CorrelationStatistical Process Control (SPC)Check SheetsQuality Function Deployment (QFD)Benchmarking
30Obstacles to Implementing TQM Lack of management commitmentInability to change organizational cultureImproper planningLack of continuous training and educationIncompatible organizational structureInsufficient resourcesIneffective measurement techniquesInadequate attention to customersInappropriate conditions for implementationInadequate use of teamwork