The Warren – Alquist Act 1974 – Section #25402 of the Public Resources Code creates the California Energy Commission Gives the CEC the authority to maintain energy efficiency standards for new buildings This act directs the commission “Prescribe” by regulation to increase the efficiency in the use of energy for new construction in residential and non-residential buildings: Lighting Insulation Climate control (HVAC) Construction standards
LANES POINTS The Warren – Alquist Act Requires that the “standards” be cost effective “when taken in their entirety and amortized over the economic life of the structure” Periodically update the Standards (every 3 years) Develop manuals to support the standards Directs local permit jurisdictions to withhold permits until the building satisfies the Standards
LANES POINTS A Brief History These standards were called Title 24 Part 6 Building Energy Efficiency Standards All “new” construction had to meet these standards during the planning stage prior to approval for construction by local enforcement agencies
LANES POINTS A Brief History Over 55% of California’s 13 million residential homes were built prior to any energy standards! Over 40% of California’s non-residential buildings were built prior to any energy standards! Energy costs since 1978 have increased steadily making it more attractive to build energy conservation standards into buildings saving $$$
LANES POINTS A Brief History Energy efficiency is defined by the CEC as the cost effective use of energy relative to the size of the building Calculated in thousands of btu’s per square foot of conditioned floor area per year (kbtu/sq. ft. yr) Heating, cooling, water heating, electrical usage is divided by the conditioned floor area of the home
LANES POINTS A Brief History The first “HERS raters” in California were performing whole house tests and measurements in the early 1990’s. By mid to late 1990’s the energy codes started encouraging and giving “prescriptive building credits” under new construction energy laws for installing certain measures that required more & more sophisticated inspections methods
LANES POINTS A Brief History Building departments enforcement personnel decided that many of these inspections were outside of their expertise Enforcement of the energy code took too much time away fro the enforcement of health and safety codes Development of “special inspectors” was needed to help field enforcement of more complicated aspects of the energy codes
LANES POINTS A Brief History HERS rater’s (special inspectors) primary function shifted from energy auditing to code enforcement in 2001 October 1, 2005 codes took a major increase in scope where they were applied to HVAC alterations in existing homes HERS (Home Energy Rating Services) verify certain energy features that require special equipment and training
LANES POINTS A Brief History In 2001 new Energy Standards were created through legislation In 2005 a report [AB 549 Report to the Legislature] Options for Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings was made with a series of recommendations by the CEC [California Energy Commission] These recommendations expanded efforts through Standards and requirements to existing building
LANES POINTS A Brief History 2005 Residential Standards included Existing building alterations to meet new standards Disclosures of home energy usage at point of sale Expansion of “whole – building diagnostic” testing and repair Quality Installation & “tune – up” of HVAC equipment These changes lead to a comprehensive program mandate by AB 758
LANES POINTS A Brief History In 2006 AB 2021 required the CEC to develop a plan to improve the efficiency of air conditioners in the state This resulted in a report completed in June 2008 that identified a major failure within the HVAC industry to obtain permits for replacement of equipment
LANES POINTS A Brief History AB 2021 report Indicates that mechanical contractors pull permits less than 10 percent of the replacement of HVAC equipment Installed equipment uses 30% to 50% more energy than it should due to poor quality installations In 2010 close to 420,000 replacements Local agencies denied resources necessary to enforce Health and Safety codes because of revenue short fall Source: CEC report AB 758 & AB 2021
LANES POINTS A Brief History AB 32 [Enacted by Governor Schwarzenegger] Global Warming Solutions Act capped California’s greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by 2020 The CARB [California Air Resources Board] Scoping Plan identifies energy use in buildings as the 2 nd largest contributor to greenhouse gases. Almost one quarter of California’s greenhouse gas total emissions Improving the energy efficiency of existing residential and non residential buildings is the single most important activity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in electricity and natural gas sectors.
LANES POINTS Residential Compliance Manual 2008 Dictates how and when energy measures are installed in Residential buildings What forms are used to “verify” 3 rd party inspections by HERS raters What measures (tests or verifications) are required
LANES POINTS Benefits Economics Good investment Cost less to operate buildings Saving $$$$ creates a more stable economy statewide Environment Reducing environmental pollution Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through lower energy use Comfort
LANES POINTS HERS Verification Third party verification
LANES POINTS HERS Verification New Construction Custom Homes Individual case by case basis Every home is tested Track / Multiple Homes (alike builds) Sample testing rather than every single residence Contractor must test every house Existing Alterations Individual case by case basis Sampling of a-like installations [same measures]
LANES POINTS HERS Verification New Non-Residential Construction Testing can be either “sampling” for alike installations or individual for systems serving less than 5,000 square feet. Existing Alterations Non-Residential Testing is performed individually on systems serving less than 5,000 square feet.
LANES POINTS Climate Zones State is divided into 16 different “climate zones” CEC provides a downloadable list of all cities in zone boundaries by alphabetical order
LANES POINTS Climate Zones Zones 2 and 9 through 15 Tight Duct testing required Refrigerant Charge verification Minimum airflow for refrigerant charge verification @ 300 cfm per ton Zones 14 – 16 + (above verifications except 16) Minimum R-8.0 duct insulation Zones 10 – 15 + (above verifications) Minimum airflow verification @ 350 cfm per ton Fan watt draw verification
LANES POINTS Climate Zones Zone 1 and 3 through 8 Currently exempt from duct tightness testing although beginning January 1, 2014 will be required. Currently exempt from refrigerant charge testing although beginning January 1, 2014 will be required. Airflow testing exempt for RCM, but will change January 1, 2014 After January 1, 2014 all zones will be required to meet minimum airflow @ 350 cfm per ton and fan watt draw verification
LANES POINTS Climate Zones All zones verified will require: Registration with State Database Verification through HERS program Certificate Final delivery to: Building official Building owner HER field inspector Installing contractor
LANES POINTS Duct Tightness Testing All existing / new duct sealing All registers must be sealed between register box and wall cut
LANES POINTS Duct Tightness Testing UL approved 181 tape Mechanical zip ties in combination with rubber backed tape & mastic Photo provided by CEC
LANES POINTS Duct Tightness Testing HERS verification using pressure testing Seal all supply grilles with tape
LANES POINTS Duct Tightness Testing Connect pressure blower at return and measure using 2 channel manometer
LANES POINTS Duct Tightness Testing The manometer will display the amount of airflow entering the pressure blower in CFM using the static pressure and area of the blower opening. This measurement determines how much airflow is ‘leaking’ outside of the duct system. Is generally representative in a percentage of the system total airflow [i.e. 6% air leakage of the system flow].
LANES POINTS Duct Tightness Testing New duct installation exceeding 40 feet of duct in a unconditioned space = 6% maximum loss of system rated airflow. Existing duct systems with equipment only replacement = 15% maximum loss of system rated airflow.
LANES POINTS Duct Sealing Advantages Increased comfort because airflow is getting to the rooms where it’s needed Indoor air quality is better because the return is not sucking in household cleaners, garden chemicals or attic dust Leaking ducts may have caused backdrafting of vents and appliances Reducing heating and cooling costs because the conditioned air is now getting into the spaces
LANES POINTS Problems with duct sealing Existing systems may have so many leaks that after sealing the duct system: Insufficient airflow through equipment causes coil icing (less than 300 cfm per ton) because of poor design Return leakage caused the building to stay positive in pressure relative to the outdoors and now has a negative pressure when exhaust fans are running causing backflow through existing flu vents and chimney Insufficient airflow will increase cycle run time and raise utility costs as well for both heating and cooling
LANES POINTS It’s all about the $$$$$$$ Approximately 20% – 30% of the conditioned airflow is lost by not getting into the conditioned space through duct leakage 40% of the existing homes have leaking ducts Refrigerant charges in error by 20% (either too much or not enough) can cause as much as an increase in utility cost of 40% Insufficient airflow will increase cycle run time and raise utility costs as well for both heating and cooling
LANES POINTS Refrigerant Charge Measurement STMS Saturated Temperature Measurement Sensor TMAH Temperature Measurement Access Holes CID Charge Indicator Display
LANES POINTS Refrigerant Charge Measurement STMS Thermistor type sensors statically placed to measure the [actual] temperature of a condensing / evaporator coil sensing the saturation temperature [same as the saturation pressure temperature measured by gauges]. Placed by the installing contractor for the HERS rater to use during RCM
LANES POINTS Refrigerant Charge Measurement TMAH Located at the supply and return plenums for measurements Used to verify temperature and system static pressure
LANES POINTS Refrigerant Charge Measurement CID A display next to the thermostat to indicate system charge. Not currently in production
LANES POINTS Refrigerant Charge Measurement TXV – systems Must meet the manufacturer's specification of sub- cooling with – in plus or minus 3 degrees [generally around 10 degrees] Must meet the manufacturer’s specification of superheat [generally 3 – 26 degrees] Must meet airflow verification to check refrigerant charge accurately Must be a minimum of 70 degrees indoor temperature and 55 degrees or warmer outdoors to verify.
LANES POINTS Refrigerant Charge Measurement Non-TXV systems Measurement of superheat following generic “approach” chart for verification. Must be with-in 4 degrees of chart for verification. Must meet airflow verification to check refrigerant charge accurately Must be a minimum of 70 degrees indoor temperature and 55 degrees or warmer outdoors to verify.
LANES POINTS Airflow verification Is there really enough air?
LANES POINTS Airflow verification Approved methods Flow Hood Plenum pressure matching Temperature difference verification Wet bulb & dry bulb return air temperature Supply air dry bulb temperature
LANES POINTS Airflow verification Must use one of three approved methods Must meet 300 cfm per ton for refrigerant charge verification – all zones Must meet 350 cfm per ton for zone 10 – 15 verification.
LANES POINTS Certification Three documents required
LANES POINTS Certification CF1R – Document filed by the installing contractor or homeowner describing the intended work or installation.
LANES POINTS Certification CF6R Filed by installing contractor certifying installed system meets or exceeds state criteria.
LANES POINTS Certification CF4R Document filed by HERS verifiers
LANES POINTS Certification CF [certificate final] One form required for each verified measurement from installing contractor and HERS verifier Generally 9 pages Four copies of each required Certificate Final delivery to: Building official Building owner HER field inspector Installing contractor
LANES POINTS New Standards 2013 Coming January 1, 2014