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Key HVAC Design Concepts. Agenda Discuss relevance of thermal enclosure system to HVAC system. Present the three major steps to design an HVAC system.

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Presentation on theme: "Key HVAC Design Concepts. Agenda Discuss relevance of thermal enclosure system to HVAC system. Present the three major steps to design an HVAC system."— Presentation transcript:

1 Key HVAC Design Concepts

2 Agenda Discuss relevance of thermal enclosure system to HVAC system. Present the three major steps to design an HVAC system. Hold question and answer session. 2

3 Thermal enclosure system 1 A well-insulated and air-sealed home, with good windows and doors, reduces the amount of energy needed to keep the home comfortable. 3

4 1.Energy moves from more to less. 2.Over time, differences in temperatures dissipate. Thermal enclosure system 90°F - Outside 40°F Cooler 90°F 70°F - Outside 4 A cooler with ice 70°F A cup of coffee 120°F

5 Thermal enclosure system 1.Energy moves from more to less. 2.Over time, differences in temperatures dissipate. 105°F 72 ° F 5

6 FIBROUS NSULATION = AIR BARRIER Thermal enclosure system 105°F 72°F 73°F 105°F 6

7 FIBROUS NSULATION = AIR BARRIER Thermal enclosure system Heat transfer can be quantified in British Thermal Units (Btu’s). 1 Btu is approximately equal to the energy in a single match. 7

8 FIBROUS NSULATION = AIR BARRIER Thermal enclosure system 72°F 73°F 8

9 FIBROUS NSULATION = AIR BARRIER Thermal enclosure system 105°F 72°F 9

10 FIBROUS NSULATION = AIR BARRIER Thermal enclosure system 105°F 10 72°F

11 FIBROUS NSULATION = AIR BARRIER Thermal enclosure system °F 72°F

12 Thermal defects to avoid Poorly installed insulation 12

13 Summary – Thermal enclosure system 13 Energy moves from more to less. Over time, differences in temperatures dissipate. Heat transfer can be quantified in Btu’s. A complete thermal enclosure system is critical to creating a home that is more comfortable using less energy.

14 Heating & cooling systems 2 Heating and cooling equipment that is: High efficiency Properly designed and installed Combined with a duct system that’s insulated, sealed, and balanced … maintains comfort with less energy. 14

15 FIBROUS NSULATION = AIR BARRIER Heating & cooling systems 105°F 73°F 72°F 15

16 Three major steps to design an HVAC system 16 1.Calculate the heating and cooling loads. 2.Select equipment that meets those loads. 3.Design a duct system that gets air from the heating & cooling equipment to the rooms in the house, and then from the rooms back to the equipment.

17 Step 1: Calculate Heating & Cooling Loads 17

18 Step 1: Calculate heating & cooling loads Cooling load is the maximum Btu’s likely to be added to the home in a single hour during the year. 18

19 Step 1: Calculate heating & cooling loads Heating load is the maximum Btu’s likely to be lost from the home in a single hour during the year. 35°F 72°F 19

20 Step 1: Calculate heating & cooling loads Standard process to calculate loads. Provides a checklist of all input variables that can affect a home’s comfort level. 20

21 Step 1: Calculate heating & cooling loads 21 South-facing home North-facing home

22 Step 1: Calculate heating & cooling loads 2012 IECC Climate Zone City Heating 99% Dry Bulb (F) Cooling 1% Dry Bulb (F) 2Houston3194 3Las Vegas Baltimore1591 5Pittsburgh788 6Syracuse285 22

23 Step 1: Calculate heating & cooling loads Important to document window performance characteristics 23

24 Summary of Step 1: Calculate heating & cooling loads The first major step in the design process is to calculate the heating and cooling loads. ACCA Manual J provides a reliable standard process for calculating loads. By documenting and verifying major design parameters, the ENERGY STAR Certified Homes program helps ensure that the HVAC system has been designed properly. 24

25 Step 2: Select the Heating & Cooling Equipment

26 Step 2: Select equipment that meets loads Standard process to select equipment using the calculated loads. 26

27 Step 2: Select equipment that meets loads Cooling Load – The number of btu’s per hour that is added to the home from the outdoors, people, lights, appliances, etc. Cooling Capacity – The number of btu’s per hour that cooling equipment can remove from the home. Heating Load – The number of btu’s per hour that is lost from the home because it’s cold outside. Heating Capacity – The number of btu’s per hour that heating equipment can add back to the home. 27

28 Step 2: Select equipment that meets loads 28 Equipment capacity can be determined using manufacturer’s expanded performance data…

29 Step 2: Select equipment that meets loads Select cooling equipment that can remove the number of Btu’s calculated for the cooling load. 72°F 73°F 29

30 Step 2: Select equipment that meets loads Select heating equipment that can add the number of Btu’s calculated for the heating load. 72°F 71°F 30

31 Summary of Step 2: Select equipment that meets loads The second major step in the design process is to select equipment using the calculated heating & cooling loads. ACCA Manual S provides a reliable standard process for doing this and includes limitations on over-sizing. By requiring that equipment be selected using this process, the ENERGY STAR Certified Homes program helps ensure that the HVAC system is efficient, durable, and effective. 31

32 Step 3: Design the Duct System

33 Step 3: Design the duct system Design a duct system that distributes air from the heating & cooling equipment to each room, and back to the equipment. 33

34 Step 3: Design the duct system Room A Room B Hallway The airflow needed by each room is directly related to its heating and cooling load. 80 CFM 34

35 Step 3: Design the duct system The airflow needed by each room is directly related to its heating and cooling load. Load Distribution Airflow Distribution Location % Airflow Airflow (CFM) Room A10% 160 Room B5% 80 Other85% 1,360 Total Equipment Airflow100% 1,600 35

36 Step 3: Design the duct system Proper airflow is needed to deliver or remove the correct amount of heat from each room. Room A – Correct Airflow 150 btu 100 btu 150 btu 300 btu’s out & 300 btu’s in Room A – Incorrect Airflow 95 btu 100 btu 75 btu 300 btu’s out & 170 btu’s in 36

37 Factors that influence duct system design: Step 3: Design the duct system Flex vs. rigid duct type Duct turns Duct diameter Duct length 37 Duct length Duct diameter Duct type Duct turns Other components, like filters

38 Step 3: Design the duct system A fan uses energy to push air Like we use energy to push air into a balloon 38

39 Step 3: Design the duct system The pressure inside the inflated balloon is the Static Pressure If the balloon has a leak, the pressure of that moving air is the Velocity Pressure Static Pressure = IWC Velocity Pressure = + 0 IWC Static Pressure = IWC Velocity Pressure = + 0 IWC Static Pressure = IWC Velocity Pressure = IWC Static Pressure = IWC Velocity Pressure = IWC 39

40 Example: Duct system without registers & sealed tightly. Step 3: Design the duct system Air Handler Supply Ducts ON OFF ON OFF 40

41 Step 3: Design the duct system ON OFF ON OFF Supply Register Example: Supply registers added to duct system. 41

42 Step 3: Design the duct system Example: Return side ducts and filters add additional static pressure to the system. ON OFF ON OFF Return Ductwork Filter 42

43 Step 3: Design the duct system The total external static pressure of the duct system includes both the supply and return side. ON OFF ON OFF

44 Summary of Step 3: Design the duct system The third major step in the design process is to design a duct system that works with the selected equipment. ACCA Manual D provides a reliable standard process for doing this. It ensures that the static pressure of the duct system and the air velocity are not too high. These requirements in the ENERGY STAR Certified Homes program help ensure that the home is efficient, quiet, and comfortable. 44

45 Summary A complete thermal enclosure system is critical to creating a home that is more comfortable uses less energy. The HVAC design process has three major steps: – Step 1 is to calculate the heating and cooling loads. – Step 2 is to select equipment with a capacity that can meet those loads. – Step 3 is to design a duct system that can get that heated & cooled air from the equipment to the rooms and back. The ENERGY STAR Certified Homes program requires this important design process to help maintain the efficiency, comfort, and quality of every certified home. 45


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