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"Joad Family Applying for Relief" (named for family in Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath)—migrant farmers seek government aid. Photo (1938), Horace Bristol.

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Presentation on theme: ""Joad Family Applying for Relief" (named for family in Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath)—migrant farmers seek government aid. Photo (1938), Horace Bristol."— Presentation transcript:

1 "Joad Family Applying for Relief" (named for family in Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath)—migrant farmers seek government aid. Photo (1938), Horace Bristol. NEXT The Great Depression and New Deal, 1929–1940 The Great Depression has a major impact on American society. President Franklin Roosevelt ends the economic downturn and changes the role of U.S. government.

2 NEXT SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 Hoover and the Crash Roosevelt and the New Deal Life During the Depression SECTION 4 The Effects of the New Deal The Great Depression and New Deal, 1929–1940

3 NEXT After the stock market crash of 1929, the U.S. economy sinks into the worst depression in its history. Section 1 Hoover and the Crash

4 Problems in the Economy Hoover and the Crash Herbert Hoover elected president (1928) 1 SECTION Despite overall prosperity, some industries are in trouble NEXT 71 percent of U.S. families earn below amount needed for decent living Industries produce more goods, people cannot afford to buy enough Unsold goods pile up in warehouses Many investors buy on speculation—buy, sell stocks, make quick profit Continued... Chart

5 Investors begin buying on margin: -pay small part of stock’s price as down payment, borrow the rest - sell stock, repay loan, keep profit 1 SECTION NEXT Works if prices rise, if prices fall unable to repay loans continued Problems in the Economy

6 The Crash and the Great Depression Stock prices drop sharply, people try selling thousands of shares 1 SECTION NEXT Heavy selling drives prices down more, scares off buyers On October 29, 1929, Black Tuesday, investors: - sell 16.4 million shares at prices lower than previous month Stock market prices plunge—Crash of 1929 Image Continued...

7 Many people unable to pay bank loans, banks run short of cash 1 SECTION NEXT People demand their money from banks, many banks run short, close People buy less goods, cause thousands of businesses to go bankrupt Businesses fire workers, unemployment grows to 25% by 1933 Great Depression—severe economic depression, 1929 to WW II, global Chart continued The Crash and the Great Depression

8 Hoover Acts Conservatively 1 SECTION NEXT Refuses to support government relief—aide to the poor Asks for increase in charitable work, not enough to help everyone Supports public works projects: -government-funded projects to build public resources, creates jobs President Hoover cuts government spending, raises taxes which: -pulls money out of economy, makes depression worse

9 Hoover Loses to Roosevelt 1 SECTION NEXT Thousands of WW I vets form the Bonus Army: -sets up camp around Washington D.C. -asks Congress to pass law granting early payment of bonuses Congress promises World War I veterans bonuses due in the 1940s Image Continued...

10 1 SECTION NEXT U.S. troops use tear gas, remove remaining vets, families, kill 1 vet President Hoover, Senate votes down bill for bonus payment Franklin Delano Roosevelt wins presidential election (1932) Attack turns Americans angrily against Hoover continued Hoover Loses to Roosevelt

11 NEXT After becoming president, Franklin D. Roosevelt takes many actions to fight the Great Depression. Section 2 Roosevelt and the New Deal

12 Roosevelt Takes Charge Roosevelt and the New Deal Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) inaugurated on March 4, 1933 2 SECTION NEXT Gives Americans hope, willing to try new ideas, change government Takes 3 steps to build public confidence: -declares “bank holiday”—temporary shutdown of banks -promises that only banks in good shape will reopen -fireside chats—radio talks, FDR explains policies in friendly way

13 The Hundred Days 2 SECTION NEXT Congress passes bills sent by FDR in Hundred Days session FDR pledges New Deal—programs to fight Depression Laws passed have 3 goals: - relief for the hungry -recovery for agriculture and industry -reforms to change the way the economy works

14 Responses to the New Deal 2 SECTION NEXT Question payment of new programs, fear U.S. moving toward socialism Some conservatives oppose New Deal, growth of U.S. government Senator Huey Long wants redistribution of wealth in U.S. to gain power Another critic proposes pension, Americans over 60, figures disputed On radio, priest blames Jews for bad economy: -Catholic church stops priest’s broadcasts Voters support New Deal, elect more Democrats to Congress (1934)

15 The Second New Deal 2 SECTION NEXT Congress passes Social Security Act (1935): -workers, employers make payments into a special fund -they draw a pension from fund after they retire -also helps laid-off, disabled workers, needy families, dependents Working class, African Americans support FDR, wins reelection (1936) Social Security is part of programs passed in 1935—Second New Deal

16 Roosevelt Fights the Supreme Court 2 SECTION NEXT Most of 9 justices of Supreme Court do not support FDR’s programs FDR wants bill allowing him to add 6 justices, gain New Deal support Strike down laws they believe gives federal government too much power Retirements, deaths allow FDR to name 5 liberal justices Democrats, Republicans criticize Court-packing bill, bill voted down

17 The New Deal Slows Down 2 SECTION NEXT Opposition to FDR grows after Court-packing attempt Critics attack FDR’s deficit spending which involves: - using borrowed money to fund government programs Economy gets worse in 1937, many blame FDR FDR himself doubts deficit spending policy

18 NEXT During the Depression, most Americans know great hardship. Section 3 Life During the Depression

19 The Dust Bowl Destroys Lives Life During the Depression In early 1930s, drought hits Great Plains, winds cause dust storms 3 SECTION NEXT Dust damages farms across 150,000 square-mile region—Dust Bowl Ruined farmers, families migrate to find work, many go to California Newcomers overcrowd California, many from Oklahoma, called “Okies”

20 Living Through Hard Times In 1936, 9 million people in U.S. are unemployed 3 SECTION NEXT Bread lines offer food to hungry, many people lose homes Homeless often live in makeshift shelters, under bridges Boys often leave school to work, girls stay home to look after kids Many teenagers run away from home, avoid burdening their family Women often give up jobs to men, work at low- paying jobs, servants Image

21 Artists Portray the Struggle Writers James Agee, Walker Evans depict harsh lives of tenant farmers 3 SECTION NEXT John Steinbeck’s novel The Grapes of Wrath (1939) depicts migrant Okies Black writer Richard Wright shows racism in novel Native Son (1940) Photographers, including Dorothea Lange, capture Depression suffering Image

22 Women in the New Deal First lady Eleanor Roosevelt helps poor Americans 3 SECTION NEXT Visits coal mines, work camps, hospitals, reports to FDR Holds press conferences with women reporters: -introduces women who run New Deal programs Frances Perkins named secretary of labor, 1st female cabinet officer Supports minimum wage, limit on child employment, unemployment laws Image

23 Minorities and the Depression FDR has several African Americans in government positions 3 SECTION NEXT FDR fails to back civil rights laws, afraid of Southern opposition Mexican Americans find few jobs, many do not benefit from New Deal In 1930s, immigration from Mexico declines, many Mexicans leave U.S. Some Mexican-American U.S. citizens forced to leave U.S. Native Americans receive arts support, some reservation land restored

24 Unions Gain Strength Labor union Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) open to: -women -minorities -unskilled workers 3 SECTION NEXT Labor movement uses sit-down strike: -instead of walking off jobs, workers remain idle inside plant -prevents factory owners from using strikebreakers Wagner Act (1935) gives unions more negotiation power Union membership increases 2.7 million (1933) to 7 million (1937) Chart

25 NEXT The Depression and the New Deal have many long-term effects on U.S. government and society. Section 4 The Effects of the New Deal

26 Lasting Effects of the Depression The Effects of the New Deal Depression causes many to fear losing money, property again 4 SECTION NEXT Makes many feel money is very important, some feel system is lousy New Deal does not end Depression U.S. involvement in World War II makes economy grow again New Deal forever changes the U.S. government Chart

27 A Larger Role for Government FDR increases the president’s power 4 SECTION NEXT Does not abuse power, helps restore Americans’ faith in democracy Expands role of federal government Government runs programs for people’s welfare FDR uses deficit spending to fund New Deal, pay for the war

28 New Deal Programs Today New Deal programs help Americans today in the following ways: -a national pension system -oversight of labor practices -agricultural price supports -protection for savings -regulation of stock market by Securities and Exchange Commission 4 SECTION NEXT Image

29 An Ongoing Political Debate Democrats, Republicans still argue about: -federal, local government roles in various programs 4 SECTION NEXT Democrats more likely liberal, Republicans more likely conservative liberal—favors government action to bring about reform conservative—fewer government controls, individual economic freedom Social Security in trouble but still exists today

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