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Avian Influenza What, Where, When Anthony Pescatore Department of Animal Sciences University of Kentucky.

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Presentation on theme: "Avian Influenza What, Where, When Anthony Pescatore Department of Animal Sciences University of Kentucky."— Presentation transcript:

1 Avian Influenza What, Where, When Anthony Pescatore Department of Animal Sciences University of Kentucky

2 Avian Influenza in the US is NOT the same Virus as “Bird” Flu in Asia (H5N1)

3 Avian Influenza Nomenclature Birds: Influenza A type virus Influenza A is divided into Subtypes based on their surface proteins: Hemagglutinin (HA): 16 subtypes Neuraminidase (NA): 9 subtypes H5N1-Hemagglutinin subtype 5 Neuraminidase subtype 1 Neuraminidase subtype 1

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6 Influenzavirus A Poultry FAD 2005

7 Characteristics of AI in Birds Shore and Water Fowl act as Hosts Shore and Water Fowl act as Hosts Ability to get disease vary for species Ability to get disease vary for species Birds shed virus in saliva, nasal discharge and feces Birds shed virus in saliva, nasal discharge and feces Spread by contact with discharge or feces Spread by contact with discharge or feces Fecal-to-oral transmission most likely Fecal-to-oral transmission most likely

8 Transmission & Host Adaptation of Influenza A Viruses  Most Common: Intraspecies, e.g. human-to- human, pig- to-pig, chicken- to-chicken, etc.  Occasional: Interspecies & intraclass, e.g. pig-to- human, wild-mallard-to-domestic turkey, etc.  Recently, but rarely: Interspecies & interclass, e.g. bird-to- human, bird-to-pig, etc.  Conclusion: Influenza viruses express host adaptation to various levels Poultry FAD 2005

9 Countries affected by H5N1 in Asia As of October 29, 2005 China Cambodia Russia Japan Korea Laos Thailand Vietnam Malaysia Kazakhstan Indonesia

10 What is Different in Asia Higher degree of bird and human contact Higher degree of bird and human contact Village fowl Village fowl City situation overcrowded: birds and people live together City situation overcrowded: birds and people live together Live bird markets Live bird markets Fighting Cocks major activity Fighting Cocks major activity More small flocks and manual labor More small flocks and manual labor

11 U. S. CONCERNS - HUMAN  4 Billion appropriated from defense budget  Vaccine studies in Asia  Naive population  117 cases confirmed human infections in Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Indonesia with a 51% mortality rate

12 United States Situation The US is concerned with keeping the “Bird Flu” out through embargoes The US is concerned with keeping the “Bird Flu” out through embargoes The US problem is a different strain and concern is bird related not a human concern The US problem is a different strain and concern is bird related not a human concern Low path (LPAI) vs. High path (HPAI) refers to how to dangerous the virus is to poultry Low path (LPAI) vs. High path (HPAI) refers to how to dangerous the virus is to poultry LPAI is present in NY/NJ live markets LPAI is present in NY/NJ live markets Important of exports (34 countries have partial or full ban) Important of exports (34 countries have partial or full ban)

13 Outbreaks in North America among Poultry 2004 Texas: H5N2: HPAI First in 20 years Texas: H5N2: HPAI First in 20 years 7,000 birds and Houston Live Market Eradicated Maryland: H7N2: LPAI: related to Delaware break Maryland: H7N2: LPAI: related to Delaware break Pennsylvania: H2N2: LPAI: Infected layer flock Pennsylvania: H2N2: LPAI: Infected layer flock Delaware and NJ: H7N2: LPAI: Two farms in Delaware and 4 live markets in NJ. Delaware and NJ: H7N2: LPAI: Two farms in Delaware and 4 live markets in NJ. British Columbia: H7N3: HPAI: Depopulated all poultry in the Fraser Valley. Repopulated British Columbia: H7N3: HPAI: Depopulated all poultry in the Fraser Valley. Repopulated

14 What is being done in US Voluntary (mandatory) surveillance program Voluntary (mandatory) surveillance program Must test for exports Mandatory surveillance of live bird markets in NY, NJ and east coast Mandatory surveillance of live bird markets in NY, NJ and east coast Increase awareness among poultry health officials and state officials Increase awareness among poultry health officials and state officials USDA increase information to small flocks producers USDA increase information to small flocks producers Import ban on poultry from Asia Import ban on poultry from Asia

15 What is being done in Kentucky? Commercial Surveillance Program Poultry Health Advisory Board Emergency Disease Plan Catastrophic Loss Training Creation of an indemnity fund for small flocks ($102,000) by commercial industry

16 What can you and small producers do? Biosecurity Personal Hygiene Wash your hands, Wash your hands, Wash your hands Separate clothes and boots for the poultry Protective gear if creating an aerosol Be aware of where you have been Get sick birds to a diagnostic lab If you have a poultry event schedule in your county let the State Veterinarian Office know.

17 Summary The situation in Asia will get worse before it is under control The situation in Asia will get worse before it is under control The threat to North America is by the transfer of the disease by a human carrier The threat to North America is by the transfer of the disease by a human carrier The US will increase programs to control Low Path Avian Influenza The US will increase programs to control Low Path Avian Influenza The media will get burnout on the story The media will get burnout on the story

18 Trouble Shooting the Small Flock Tony Pescatore Extension Professor Department of Animal Sciences Agent Training 2005

19 1.Quantity, Age, and Types of Birds on Farm Important when dealing with mix species, mixed ages, What birds have the problem 2. What is the source of the birds? Multiple sources, new birds on farm, age of birds when purchased, NPIP hatchery

20 3. What feed is being fed to the birds? List all feeds and the amount or proportion. Poultry need a complete feed that contains protein, energy, vitamins and minerals. Laying hens need diets that are 14-16% Broiler starter diets contain 20-22% Broiler grower diets contain 18-20% Turkeys, game birds and other fowl need higher protein. Cracked corn and scratch grains do not supply needed nutrition. 1/4 pound per bird per day 10 to 12 pounds of feed / broiler

21 4. How is water supplied ? What is the source of water? Clean fresh water Pond vs. City water Clean mold free drinkers Winter: Frozen water lines and drinkers Summer: Heat build up / flush lines Opaque water lines and reservoirs 5 gallons of water / 100 laying hens or market ready broilers Double water consumption in warm weather

22 How are the birds housed and what is the amount of room per bird? No matter the housing system you can over crowd the birds. Feeder space and water space can cause crowding. (all birds can eat at one time) 2 inches – 4 inches per bird Cannibalism, reduced feed consumption, feather picking, stress Chickens need at least 2.5 sq ft per bird on the floor and 80 sq inches of cage space Turkeys need 3 to 4 times the space of chickens Game birds need extra room to prevent cannibalism

23 Pastured Poultry

24 Free range

25 6. What symptoms do the birds exhibit? Listless Paralysis Loose/watery Droppings Blood in Droppings Coughing/Nasal Rattle Nasal Discharge Swollen Eyes Cannibalism, pecking/feather picking Drop in Egg Production Limber neck Visible External Parasites Poor Growth Skin Lesions Curled Toes Swollen Head Poor Shell Quality Swollen Hocks Crusted or swollen scales Other

26 7. Have any birds died (How many and when)? Which birds: age, species, what subpopulation 8. Have birds been sent to a diagnostic lab? Which lab? Who is the submitting veterinarian? There is a charge at the labs. Cap of $55 for five birds The birds need to be submitted by a veterinarian 9. What vaccination program is being used on the farm? List type and date of each vaccination. Vaccinate at the hatchery for Marek’s Disease No other vaccine unless a history of disease on premises 10. Is there a history of this type of disease or symptom?

27 11. What Lighting Program are the birds on? Natural Light, Natural Light + Supplemental Light, Artificial Light How much light (Hours / Day) do the birds receive? To lay year round need supplemental light for a day length of hours of light Birds on natural light will go out of production after the first of the year because of short day length and will return to production in spring with increasing day length Constant light of 24 hours will cause the birds to go out of production A 60 watt bulb eight feet above the birds gives enough light in a 10 x 10 area

28 12. Which of the following condition exists on the farm? Clean and Neat Build up of wet litter or bedding in pens Good ground cover in outside pens or runs Muddy runs or outside pens with poor drainage Feed is properly stored and provided fresh daily Feed is stored in extreme conditions cold or hot Moldy or cake feed in feeders Table scrapes are laying in pens or runs

29 12. Which of the following condition exists on the farm? Waterer or drinkers are clean regularly Waterer or drinkers are dirty and not clean Rodents or pest present Wild birds have excess to buildings or feeders Poultry on farm are isolated from other animals

30 12. Which of the following condition exists on the farm? No new birds are brought on to the farm except as chicks New birds have been added to the flock within the last two months The owner has attended a poultry show or swap meet or exhibited birds Birds that have been to shows or swap meets are kept isolated for 30 days when returned to the farm Birds at shows and swap meets are added immediately to the flock Different species of birds are kept separate from each other (chicken and turkeys are not mixed) All species of birds are raised together with no separation Contact with commercial poultry


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