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Wildlife Disease Avian Influenza John F. Corbett, III Bio. 335-Wildlife and Fisheries Biology Keystone College Keystone College Feb. 18, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Wildlife Disease Avian Influenza John F. Corbett, III Bio. 335-Wildlife and Fisheries Biology Keystone College Keystone College Feb. 18, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wildlife Disease Avian Influenza John F. Corbett, III Bio. 335-Wildlife and Fisheries Biology Keystone College Keystone College Feb. 18, 2010

2 Diseases, Pathogens and Parasites- Overview Disease- any departure from health; destructive process in an organism with a specific cause and symptoms. Disease- any departure from health; destructive process in an organism with a specific cause and symptoms. Disease agents can be physical, chemical or biological factors that cause a disease. Disease agents can be physical, chemical or biological factors that cause a disease. Pathogen- disease causing biological agent. Pathogen- disease causing biological agent. Pathogens and parasites encompass a wide variety of organisms, including viruses, bacteria, protozoan's, fungi and heminths- parasitic worms. Pathogens and parasites encompass a wide variety of organisms, including viruses, bacteria, protozoan's, fungi and heminths- parasitic worms. Some are external, while others are internal Some are external, while others are internal

3 Diseases, Pathogens and Parasites- Concern Possibility of disease outbreaks in wild populations when stocking or accidental introduction. Possibility of disease outbreaks in wild populations when stocking or accidental introduction. 2 types; epizootics- large scale eruptive disease outbreaks, enzootics- low-level chronic disease problems. 2 types; epizootics- large scale eruptive disease outbreaks, enzootics- low-level chronic disease problems. Exotic or transplanted organisms may transfer diseases against which native organisms have no defense. Exotic or transplanted organisms may transfer diseases against which native organisms have no defense. Parasites in wild affect only few members in a population. Parasites in wild affect only few members in a population.

4 Diseases, Pathogens and Parasites- Concern Artificially reared populations, crowded organisms are more susceptible to disease, outbreak will affect large percentage of population. Artificially reared populations, crowded organisms are more susceptible to disease, outbreak will affect large percentage of population.

5 Avian Influenza- Bird Flu Infection caused by viruses. Infection caused by viruses. Occurs naturally among wild birds, carried in their intestines, usually does not affect them. Occurs naturally among wild birds, carried in their intestines, usually does not affect them. Very contagious among domesticated birds; chickens, ducks and turkey, become very ill and eminent death. Very contagious among domesticated birds; chickens, ducks and turkey, become very ill and eminent death. Infected birds shed the virus in saliva, nasal secretions and feces. Infected birds shed the virus in saliva, nasal secretions and feces. Susceptible birds infected by contact with contaminated fluids, surfaces or materials. Susceptible birds infected by contact with contaminated fluids, surfaces or materials.

6 Avian Flu Virus

7 Avian Influenza- Bird Flu 2 forms of bird flu affecting domestic poultry. 2 forms of bird flu affecting domestic poultry. Low pathogenic form may go undetected and cause only mild conditions; ruffled feathers, mild respiratory effects and drop in egg production. Low pathogenic form may go undetected and cause only mild conditions; ruffled feathers, mild respiratory effects and drop in egg production. Highly pathogenic form spreads rapidly through flocks, affects multiple internal organs, massive hemorrhaging and has mortality rate of % within 48 hours. Highly pathogenic form spreads rapidly through flocks, affects multiple internal organs, massive hemorrhaging and has mortality rate of % within 48 hours. Nicknamed the Chicken Ebola. Nicknamed the Chicken Ebola.

8 Avian Influenza- History Historically, wild bird flu virus infected domestic poultry, which infected domesticated pig, mixed with pig flu virus. Historically, wild bird flu virus infected domestic poultry, which infected domesticated pig, mixed with pig flu virus. Viruses exchanged genetic information, formed new virus. Viruses exchanged genetic information, formed new virus. New mutation could infect humans easily and spread from person to person. New mutation could infect humans easily and spread from person to person. 1918, Spanish flu began as normal flu, became deadly. 1918, Spanish flu began as normal flu, became deadly. Scientists believe this virus was mutated form of bird flu virus. Scientists believe this virus was mutated form of bird flu virus.

9 Avian Flu Cycle

10 Avian Influenza- H5N1 Bird flu H5N1, recent deadly virus affecting domesticated poultry in Asia and eastern Europe. Bird flu H5N1, recent deadly virus affecting domesticated poultry in Asia and eastern Europe. First discovered in Hong Kong, 1997, infected 18 and killed 6 people in close contact with infected poultry. First discovered in Hong Kong, 1997, infected 18 and killed 6 people in close contact with infected poultry. H5N1 survives in environment for long periods of time. H5N1 survives in environment for long periods of time.

11 Avian Influenza- H5N1 Wild birds migrate from Asia to Europe with virus in their intestine. Wild birds migrate from Asia to Europe with virus in their intestine. Birds that recover from flu shed virus through secretions and excretions for up to 10 days. Birds that recover from flu shed virus through secretions and excretions for up to 10 days. Since then, millions of birds infected, then disposed of to prevent spread of disease. Since then, millions of birds infected, then disposed of to prevent spread of disease. 2005, discovered in Turkey and Romania. 2005, discovered in Turkey and Romania.

12 Avian Influenza- H5N1 Disposal of Infected Poultry

13 H5N1- Worldwide Affects 2005, 146 confirmed cases, 76 fatalities in 6 countries. 2005, 146 confirmed cases, 76 fatalities in 6 countries. Slowed economic growth in Asian poultry industry and tourism from pandemic. Slowed economic growth in Asian poultry industry and tourism from pandemic. Predict next bird flu pandemic infects 20% of world’s population, mostly Third World countries. Predict next bird flu pandemic infects 20% of world’s population, mostly Third World countries. Predicted food and energy shortage and import/export restrictions. Predicted food and energy shortage and import/export restrictions.

14 Current Bird Embargos Embargo- country’s government order to ban trade of certain product with certain countries. Embargo- country’s government order to ban trade of certain product with certain countries. USDA and CDC restrictions on poultry, commercial birds, pet birds and unprocessed bird products, dead or alive, from Asia and eastern Europe. USDA and CDC restrictions on poultry, commercial birds, pet birds and unprocessed bird products, dead or alive, from Asia and eastern Europe. United States had low pathogenic viruses in poultry, few years ago. Asia, Mexico and European Union issued embargo against trade. United States had low pathogenic viruses in poultry, few years ago. Asia, Mexico and European Union issued embargo against trade.

15 References Willis, D.W., Scarlet, C.G. and Flake, L.D. Introduction to Wildlife and Fisheries- An Integrated Approach, 2 nd Edition, 2009, W.H. Freeman and Comp., New York, NY, pp –Key facts about Avian Influenza and AH5N1 Virus

16 Thank You


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