Presentation on theme: "Industrialization and Workers Ch 6, Sec 3 & 4. Factory Workers Boom in workforce mid to late 1800s. – Urbanization and large immigrant population. 10-12."— Presentation transcript:
Industrialization and Workers Ch 6, Sec 3 & 4
Factory Workers Boom in workforce mid to late 1800s. – Urbanization and large immigrant population hours/day, 6 days/week. Paid by piecework – paid by number of completed products. Worked in sweatshops – long hours, low pay, poor working conditions.
Efficiency studies by Frederick Winslow Taylor led to division of labor. – Production divided up into small parts, each person does on part over and over. – Made businesses very efficient; low skill level, low pay. Few safety measures in factories; hot, loud, dangerous. Due to low pay, wives and children worked. – 1 in 5 kids aged was employed.
Frederick Winslow Taylor
Unions and Strikes 1890-Richest 9% of Americans held 75% of wealth. – Led to resentment and anger. Many began to support philosophy of Socialism. – Public control of factors of production, not private. – Wealth should be spread evenly to all. Socialist ideas led to creation of labor unions.
Unions formed to help workers in hard times. – Changed to become a way for workers to give demands to employers. Higher pay, shorter hours, better conditions, etc. 1869, Knights of Labor union formed to organize all into single union. – Wanted equal pay for equal work (women, minorities), 8-hour workday, no child labor. – Peaked at 700,00 members, then declined and disappeared in 1890’s.
1886, Samuel Gompers founded American Federation of Labor (AFL). – Craft Union – Only skilled workers in a network of smaller unions, each devoted to a specific craft. Wanted better wages, hours, conditions. Used strikes, boycotts, collective bargaining. – Workers negotiate as a group with employers. AFL was very effective and successful.
1877, railroad workers struck to protest wage cuts and unsafe conditions. – Destroyed railroad property, US president sent troops to restore order. Eugene V. Debs organized the American Railway Union. – Industrial union – workers from all crafts in a given industry. Debs was opposed to violent strikes, preferred peaceful protests.
Eugene V. Debs Industrial Union
Employers disliked and feared unions. Tried to stop unions by: – Forbidding union meetings. – Firing union organizers. – Forcing new employees to sign contracts promising not to join unions or strike. – Refusing to collectively bargain. – Refusing to recognize unions as workers’ representatives.
– 24,000 strikes. Haymarket Riot, 1886 – national protest for 8 hour workday led to strikes. – Chicago-fight between strikers and scabs led to union protest in Haymarket Square. – Someone threw a bomb and killed cops, led to open riot with dozens dead. – Knights of Labor blamed. – 4 anarchists hanged, 1 killed self, 3 let go.
Homestead Strike, 1892 – Carnegie’s partner Henry Clay Frick tried to cut wages at Homestead, Pennsylvania mill. – Led to huge strike. – Frick sent in Pinkertons to break strike; gunfight, many killed. – Anarchist Alexander Berkman tried and failed to kill Frick. Public opinion turned against strikers. – Strike ended against workers 3 months after start.
Henry Clay Frick
Pullman Strike, 1894 – George Pullman built luxury railroad cars, and a town for his workers. – 1893, cut wages 25%, kept rent and food prices same. – Caused local union to strike. Pullman shut down factory, refused to bargain. – ARU led nationwide Pullman strike, 260,000 workers. Blocked mail delivery, fed gov’t got involved. – Citing Sherman Anti-Trust Act, railroads got court order to end strike, President Cleveland sent troops to enforce.