Presentation on theme: "MEDIA AND THE GOVERNMENT. Media Industry and the Government Types-Print, Broadcast, and Internet Regulation National Ownership (BBC): Not in the U.S."— Presentation transcript:
MEDIA AND THE GOVERNMENT
Media Industry and the Government Types-Print, Broadcast, and Internet Regulation National Ownership (BBC): Not in the U.S. (PBS is only partially supported by federal funds) Newspapers free from regulation Broadcast-Federal Communications Commission regulates radio and tv. Allows for frequencies to be assigned. Must apply for licenses every 5 years- automatically granted Prohibit sexual and excretory references between 6AM and 10PM- enforced by fines Equal time rule- the requirement that broadcasters provide candidates for the same political office an equal opportunity to communicate their messages to the public. Right of rebuttal- an FCC regulation giving individuals the right to have an opportunity to respond to personal attacks
Freedom of the Press Prior Restraint- An effort by a government agency to block the publication of material it deems libelous or harmful in some other way; censorship. In the US the courts forbid prior restraint except under the most extraordinary circumstances. Ex: Pentagon Papers Libel- provides that newspapers that print false and malicious stories can be compelled to pay damages to those they defame. Very hard to win a libel case as a politician. They must deliberately print lies. ors-at-odds-in-former-cincinnati- cheerleader-libel-suit/ ors-at-odds-in-former-cincinnati- cheerleader-libel-suit/
Organization and Ownership US 2000 TV Stations 1400 Daily Newspapers Radio Stations Most national news is actually only provided by one wire service: The Associated Press. 3 National Newspapers- 2 elites (NY Times, Washington Post) prime source for educated and influential people Most news is affiliated with 5 networks Radio stations and syndicated shows: tend to be conservative in nature
The 24 Hour News Network CNN, FOX, MSNBC CNN came to prominence after the Persian Gulf War Have totally changed the way that Americans follow and “ingest news” Birth of the “24 hour news cycle” Breaking news as it happens What is watched most? Guesses?
What makes your different from a southerner?
Nationalization of the News With radio, news became national as broadcasters took cues from one another TV brought a crescendo to nationalization Sectional perspectives became drowned out. What matters more now? Conservative vs. Liberal
Rise of Media: What has the biggest impact
Digital Media Has only changed WHEN people read Blogs have made media feel more personal
Media Power in US Agenda Setting- the process by which it is determined which issues are taken up by political actors and institutions. Ex: The tsunami received far more extensive coverage in all countries analyzed in both television and print media which in turn affected people's behavior in terms of private donations. In Germany, for example, the tsunami received 666 reports in the three TV channels in comparison to 66 on the earthquake.
Media Power Priming- A process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an event or a political actor. EX: Pre-debate analysis
Media Power Framing- the power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpreted government shut-down coverage EX: Post Debate Analysis Adversarial Journalism- the media adopt a hostile posture toward the government and public officials Is this good?
What determines interpretation of news? News Interpretation News Producers or Journalists Politicians or News SourcesNews Consumers News Interpretation News Consumers
Journalists Publishers Can influence which stories are covered and how William Randolph Hearst and Cuba Reporters Personal feelings can be interjected into their coverage Liberal Bias? 61% of Bureau Chiefs and Reporters call themselves “liberal” 9% of Bureau Chiefs and Reporters call themselves “conservative” But open to page 576, maybe there is a conservative bias in newspapers
News Sources Politicians Public Officials Special Interest Groups Events Sources often wish to use the media in a way which benefits them Ever wonder how a script for a news show gets written?
The News Leak A news leak is the disclosure of confidential information to the news media. Leaks may emanate from a variety of sources, including whistleblowers, lower-level officials who hope to publicize what they view as their bosses improper activities Pentagon Papers Wikileaks- Are leaks a bad thing or are they good and important?
The Press Release Press or news releases are news stories written by news sources which hope journalists will adopt their story with little changes. Why do journalists allow this? Saves time and therefore money.
Hiring Reporters Sometimes the government or news sources hire their own reporters to cover the news they want covered US Agency for International Development USAID operate or subsidize radio stations in Afghanistan
Consumers Catering to the Upscale Audience While other segments of the public also read newspapers and watch the tv news, their level of interest in world events, national political issues, and the like is closely related to their level of education. Table 13.3 pg 584 As a result upscale Americans are overrepresented in the news and public affairs audience. Labor organizations, religion, veterans, fraternal, ethnic, and patriotic organizations all not covered much The Media and Conflict The media often cover conflict because the drama attracts attention Compromise, rationality, and respect are not covered much For example- debt ceiling debate, fiscal cliff, gun debate