2Media Industry and the Government Types-Print, Broadcast, and InternetRegulationNational Ownership (BBC): Not in the U.S. (PBS is only partially supported by federal funds)Newspapers free from regulationBroadcast-Federal Communications Commission regulates radio and tv. Allows for frequencies to be assigned.Must apply for licenses every 5 years-automatically grantedProhibit sexual and excretory references between 6AM and 10PM- enforced by finesEqual time rule- the requirement that broadcasters provide candidates for the same political office an equal opportunity to communicate their messages to the public.Right of rebuttal- an FCC regulation giving individuals the right to have an opportunity to respond to personal attacks
3Freedom of the PressPrior Restraint- An effort by a government agency to block the publication of material it deems libelous or harmful in some other way; censorship. In the US the courts forbid prior restraint except under the most extraordinary circumstances.Ex: Pentagon PapersLibel- provides that newspapers that print false and malicious stories can be compelled to pay damages to those they defame. Very hard to win a libel case as a politician. They must deliberately print lies.
4Organization and Ownership US2000 TV Stations1400 Daily Newspapers13000 Radio StationsMost national news is actually only provided by one wire service: The Associated Press.3 National Newspapers- 2 elites (NY Times, Washington Post)prime source for educated and influential peopleMost news is affiliated with 5 networksRadio stations and syndicated shows:tend to be conservative in nature
7The 24 Hour News Network CNN, FOX, MSNBC CNN came to prominence after the Persian Gulf WarHave totally changed the way that Americans follow and “ingest news”Birth of the “24 hour news cycle”Breaking news as it happensWhat is watched most?Guesses?
10Nationalization of the News With radio, news became national as broadcasters took cues from one anotherTV brought a crescendo to nationalizationSectional perspectives became drowned out.What matters more now?Conservative vs. Liberal
12Digital Media Has only changed WHEN people read Blogs have made media feel more personal
13Media Power in USAgenda Setting- the process by which it is determined which issues are taken up by political actors and institutions.Ex: The tsunami received far more extensive coverage in all countries analyzed in both television and print media which in turn affected people's behavior in terms of private donations. In Germany, for example, the tsunami received 666 reports in the three TV channels in comparison to 66 on the earthquake.
14Media PowerPriming- A process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an event or a political actor.EX: Pre-debate analysis
15Media PowerFraming- the power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpreted government shut-down coverageEX: Post Debate AnalysisAdversarial Journalism- the media adopt a hostile posture toward the government and public officials Is this good?
16What determines interpretation of news? News Producers or JournalistsNews InterpretationNews InterpretationPoliticians or News SourcesNews ConsumersNews Consumers
17Journalists Publishers Reporters Liberal Bias? Can influence which stories are covered and howWilliam Randolph Hearst and CubaReportersPersonal feelings can be interjected into their coverageLiberal Bias?61% of Bureau Chiefs and Reporters call themselves “liberal”9% of Bureau Chiefs and Reporters call themselves “conservative”But open to page 576, maybe there is a conservative bias in newspapers
18News Sources Politicians Public Officials Special Interest Groups EventsSources often wish to use the media in a way which benefits themEver wonder how a script for a news show gets written?
19The News LeakA news leak is the disclosure of confidential information to the news media. Leaks may emanate from a variety of sources, including whistleblowers, lower-level officials who hope to publicize what they view as their bosses improper activitiesPentagon PapersWikileaks-Are leaks a bad thing or are they good and important?
20The Press ReleasePress or news releases are news stories written by news sources which hope journalists will adopt their story with little changes.Why do journalists allow this?Saves time and therefore money.
21Hiring ReportersSometimes the government or news sources hire their own reporters to cover the news they want coveredUS Agency for International Development USAID operate or subsidize radio stations in Afghanistan
22Consumers Catering to the Upscale Audience The Media and Conflict While other segments of the public also read newspapers and watch the tv news, their level of interest in world events, national political issues, and the like is closely related to their level of education. Table 13.3 pg 584 As a result upscale Americans are overrepresented in the news and public affairs audience. Labor organizations, religion, veterans, fraternal, ethnic, and patriotic organizations all not covered muchThe Media and ConflictThe media often cover conflict because the drama attracts attentionCompromise, rationality, and respect are not covered muchFor example- debt ceiling debate, fiscal cliff, gun debate