Presentation on theme: "ASDP Japanese History and Culture (II)"— Presentation transcript:
1 ASDP Japanese History and Culture (II) Peter Nosco - May 22, 2013
2 Compare these observations of Japan in the 1570s (left) and 1620 (right) “[The people] rebel against [their rulers] whenever they have a chance, either usurping them or joining up with their enemies…. The chief root of the evil is the fact that … Japan was divided up among so many usurping barons that there are always wars among them….” Alessandro Valignano, SJ“The government of Japan may well be accounted the greatest and most powerful Tyranny that was ever heard of in the world, for all the rest are as Slaves to the … great commander as they call him….” Richard Cocks
3 Oda Nobunaga ( )Succeeds remarkably in bringing about 35% of Japan (including Kyoto) under his controlAbolished toll barriers that the Ashikaga Bakufu and many daimyo and temples had established“free markets” and “free guilds”Removes taxes on merchantsEstablishes an office for the oversight of temples and shrinesFixes exchange rates for gold-silver-copperOrders repairs to roads and bridgesFriendly to ChristiansBetrayed by a former ally
4 Toyotomi HideyoshiBy avenging Nobunaga’s death, Hideyoshi becomes the great rags-to-riches story.Three extraordinary policies:1) 1590 Census recording population by household and after organization of the society into mutual responsibility groups2) A complete land (cadastral) survey of each province1588 Sword hunt: Disarmament by confiscation, resulting in 1591 separation of warriors and farmersAnd one disaster: the 1592 invasion of Korea
5 Hideyoshi’s concern over an heir After years of frustration, in 1593 Hideyoshi finally has a son named Toyotomi Hideyori, who in 1596 is installed as Hideyoshi’s 3-year-old successorIncreasing evidence of Hideyoshi’s mental instabilityIn 1598 Hideyoshi’s health begins to fail seriously and quickly deterioratesSets up a council of regency for Hideyori comprised of the five leading families in Japan and headed by Tokugawa Ieyasu of MikawaThey promise their loyalty to Hideyoshi’s heir but the result is predictable once Hideyoshi dies in 1598.
7 The Battle of Sekigahara and its aftermath 1600 Tokugawa Ieyasu’s ( ) decisive victory at Battle of Sekigahara1/3rd of the world’s muskets usedPolitical capital (Bakufu) moved to Edo (today’s Tokyo)Grows from a sleepy fishing village to a city of a million in 100 years1603 Ieyasu takes and redefines the title of seii taishōgunTitle had been vacant for thirty years1605 Ieyasu passes title of Shogun to his son Hidetada (d. 1632) while controlling matters himself for another ten years
8 Again, compare these observations of Japan from the 1570s and 1620 “[The people] rebel against [their rulers] whenever they have a chance, either usurping them or joining up with their enemies…. The chief root of the evil is the fact that … Japan was divided up among so many usurping barons that there are always wars among them….” Alessandro Valignano, SJ“The government of Japan may well be accounted the greatest and most powerful Tyranny that was ever heard of in the world, for all the rest are as Slaves to the … great commander as they call him….” Richard Cocks
9 Sakoku (“Closing the Country”) edicts 1633-1635 Forbid Japanese from traveling abroadForbid Japanese living abroad from returning to JapanForbid Europeans in Japan other than the Dutch on Deshima (Dejima) in Nagasaki HarborDecisively prohibit Christianity (with bounties for informants) and execute clergyRemains the law of the land until the 1850s
10 What is now there in 1640 and what is still needed for “early modernity”? Yes - The capacity for major resource mobilizationGetting there - An urbanized and literate society with meaningful surplus wealth distributed broadlyGetting there - A developed communications and transportation infrastrureA half-century away – a self-sustaining popular culture100 years away – An increasing sense of collective identity150 years away – a proto-scientific outlook grounded in rationalistic and humanistic perspectives.
11 Japan’s place in the early modern world c. 1600: The Clash of CivilizationsEuropeChinaJapanKoreaReligion / PhilosophyLate-Renaissance Christianity / Neo-PlatonismLate-Ming Neo-Confucianism & BuddhismEarly-Tokugawa Buddhism, turning to ConfucianismMid-Choson Neo-Confucianism, shamanismGovernmentEarly modern monarchiesImperial stateShogunate (Bakufu)Kings (tribute)PowerExpansionist and maritimeExpansionist but land-basedLimited imperial, turning to isolationistIsolationistDegree of early modernity: collective identity and resource mobilizationStrong in bothStill weak in collective identity but strong in resource mobilizationWeak in both
12 The Confucian concept of four classes in Tokugawa Japan (1600-1867): Note the great range within each class though limited mobility between classesSamurai士Agriculturalists農Artisans工Merchants商An organic (organism-like) view of societyOutliers: Entertainers, priests, physicians, diviners, and so onThe outcastes or burakumin engaged in problematic occupations like morticians, butchers, tanners, and so on
13 The effects of the epistemological shift from Buddhism to Neo-Confucianism Fundamental rationalismHumanismHistorical mindednessEthnocentrismConfidence in self-cultivation and the perfectibility of people.One effect with implications for civil society: The rise of public and private academies
14 A revolution in Confucian thought: Ogyū Sorai 1666-1728 and the issue of nature v. invention The Confucian Way = The Way of the Former Kings, and not the Way of HeavenThe Confucian Way 道 = comprehensive term comprised of the policies, music, rituals, laws and punishments of the pastThe Confucian sages 聖人 are just men who are special because of what they inventedThe Confucian Way is to be found through texts and in history, and not in nature.It thus must be modified if it is to be applied successfully in another time and place
15 The Genroku period and popular culture Formally , but more commonly used to refer to reign of 5th Tokugawa Shogun Tokugawa Tsyunayoshi (r )Grandson of a Kyoto greengrocerThe “dog shogun”The rise of the chōnin 町人 or urban townsman (non-samurai commoner)Popular culture as culture that pays for itself
16 Five requisites for a self-sustaining popular culture: 1) Urbanization Cities concentrate consumers of popular culture10% of Japan’s population in 1700 lived in communities with 10,000+ populationsThis urban/semi-urban population grows tenfold in Japan in 100 years5-7% live in Japan live in 100K+ cities, compared with 2-3% in EuropePopulations of Nagoya and Kanazawa at 100K each are like Rome and Amsterdam; Osaka at 350K is like Paris; Kyoto at is 400K like London; Edo at 1M may be world’s largest city
17 2) Surplus wealthSurplus wealth necessary for consumers of popular cultureAgricultural yield increases by 40% in 1600sBenefits experienced differently by urban samurai, merchants, artisans, and even rich agriculturalistsProminence of economic themes in the popular culture (bill paying, etc.)
18 3) Literacy Woodblock printing technology reduces cost Rejection of movable typeBy end of Tokugawa period (c. 1850) male literacy of 40-50% and female literacy at 20-25% (compare with England-Wales/Holland)Question of how so many learned to read?Consider Ihara Saikaku’s story of the pawned love letterPrint culture and creating of community
19 4) Communications and transportation infrastructure Introduction of movable print technology, initially by Jesuits and also from Korea (recall invasion of 1590s)The “Five Highways” (Gokaidō)Post stationsEngelbert Kaempfer’s observations on Tōkaidō linking Kyoto to Edo: number of travels “scarce credible” and “on some days more crowded than the public streets” of Europe’s largest cities
20 5) Cultural liberalityPromotion of diversity and appreciation for the diverse possibilities of life (Charles Frankel)Little interest in censorship except where peace/security might be threatenedCreation of licensed pleasure quarters in major metropolisesShimabara in Kyoto and Yoshiwara in Edo
21 Legacy of this popular culture It was now realistically possible for someone to make a living and a reputation through various forms of cultural production.It was essential that one neither satirize the government or challenge the status quo.It is originally during the Genroku an urban phenomenon, but by the end of the Tokugawa all of its features will have reached through networks into semi-urban regions—part of a long process of nationalization of Japanese culture.
22 “Dutch” (Western) Learning Tokugawa Yoshimune’s relaxation of the ban on European booksWestern Learning called Rangaku (Oranda = Holland; gaku = learning)Two main strains:Medicine (including botany, pharmacy, mining, chemistry and physics),and astronomy (including calendrical science, cartography and geography)Different reasons than why we study foreign languages and cultures today
23 The autopsy of 1771Conducted by Sugita Genpaku ( ) who came from a family trained for generations in Chinese medicineWith Maeno Ryōtaku, witnessed the autopsy by an eta of a 50-year old woman from Kyoto, comparing what they saw with charts in a Dutch translation of the German Anatomische tabellen by Johan Kalmus (d. 1745)They translated Kalmus’ book into Japanese as “A New Book of Anatomy”
24 The significanceA European book on anatomy could be more accurate than a Chinese bookDutch learning might be in some areas superior to Japanese learningThere is the physical basis for a universal humanityConsider the relationship between Rangaku (Western Learning) and Kokugaku (National Leaning)—1771 as a remarkable yearEffect on painting and European style realismA new way of seeing the world
25 Painting c. 1783 by Shiba Kōkan: “A View of Mimeguri” in Eastern Edo
26 In nativism there is Motoori Norinaga 1730-1801 Born and lived most of his life in MatsusakaFamily of cotton merchantsNorinaga was only interested in studiesSent by his mother to study medicine in KyotoReturns to Matsusaka and starts a medical practice
27 Themes in Norinaga’s thought His work on Tale of Genji and notion of mono no aware (the pathos of things) as the essence of Japanese literature and poetryA defense of the emotionalHis sense of the wondrous qualities of lifeHis lifelong work on Kojiki of 712The 1763 “evening in Matsusaka” and his sole meeting with Kamo no Mabuchi
28 1771 “Rectifying Spirit” (Naobi no mitama) The ancient Way of Japan is the Way of the kami, (kami no michi or Shinto神道)Neither natural nor man-made, it is a Way created by kami, not humansOwing to the introduction of Chinese language and ways of doing things, there was a Fall from an ancient state of grace when Japanese lived in total harmony with the kami.No separation between the past and presentKami still control everythingAmaterasu, ancestress of the imperial family, is both the sun goddess and the sun itselfJapanese deities, and hence Japan itself is the ancestral country of the rest of the world.The Way to cleanse oneself of the “Chinese heart” (Karagokoro) and foreign contamination is to turn to the Rectifying DeitiesOne can thereby reanimate one’s true “Japanese heart” and
29 Construction of identity: Who are you? Orientating oneself in time and spaceThe creation of a heritage (patrimony)Who are we not, as much as who are we?A deep nostalgia and an idealized pastA sense of a shared destinationTouching the sacred in everyday lifeCollective identity (“we Japanese”) vs. individual identity (“I”)
30 1844 King William of Holland sends a letter to the shogun via Nagasaki It warns Japan that the rest of the world is being knit together by trade“The process is irresistible, and it draws all people together. Distance is overcome by the steamship, and any nation that holds itself aloof from this process risks the enmity of others…. When ancient laws by strict construction threaten the peace, wisdom directs that they be softened.”The Bakufu through replies that the suggestion is impossible and asks that the King not write againThe central government simply does not know how to respond.
31 Biddle Mission1846 Captain James Biddle from the U.S. arrives in Edo Bay with two ships hoping to open relations with Japan.He was told that foreign relations could only take place in Nagasaki, and lacking authorization to use force, he withdraws.The Bakufu again interprets this as validation of its policiesThe U.S. interprets this as proof that a stronger approach is needed
32 The Perry Mission of 1853Aware of the Biddle Mission’s failure, Commodore Matthew C. Perry prepares carefully, insisting that he have enough military force to guarantee his mission’s successHe arrives in Edo Bay on July with four “Black Ships” mounting 61 guns and carrying 967 menHis demands include protection of seamen and permission to obtain supplies and to trade, justifying these demands as the “law of nations.”After a formal ceremony on shore, Perry departs announcing that he will return in April or May 1854—he instead returns in February.
34 The 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa1853 Abe Masahiro, head of the Council of Elders, circulates Perry’s demands to all the Daimyō soliciting their opinions (there is no consensus) and informs the imperial court as wellIt can be said that Perry thus “opens” Japanese politics as well as its ports!Upon Perry’s return, Japan is represented in the negotiations by Hayashi, head of the Bakufu’s Shōheikō Neo-Confucian academyJapan agrees to open two harbors at Shimoda and Hakodate where US ships could receive supplies and coal (but not actually trade)Japan also agrees to open a consulate at ShimodaBoth sides felt that they had prevailed in the negotiations.1856 Townsend Harris arrives in Shimoda as the first US ConsulThis first consulate is soon followed by diplomatic missions from the British and RussiansHarris meets the Shogun in 1857 and in 1858 concludes a treaty opening five ports including Edo to trade and residency for US vessels and citizens
35 1863-1868 Four struggles for control 1) For control of domainal politics in Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa, i.e., the domains that will lead the coup d’etat2) For control over the Court and its nobles in Kyoto, as well as the person of the Emperor3) For control over the Bakufu’s own policies and politics4) (Among the foreign powers) competition for the best possible deal with Japan.
36 The last days: Once intense rivals, Satsuma and Chōshū acting together 1866 Satsuma and Chōshū now form an anti-Bakufu allianceBoth shogun Iemochi and emperor Kōmei die in the same yearHitotsubashi Keiki becomes the last Tokugawa shogun, reigning less than one year, and Meiji (b. 1852) becomes emperorEe ja nai ka (ain’t it grand?) movement of spontaneous reverie erupts in citiesBakufu launches reform movement with French assistance (the final Tokugawa rally)The writing on the wall becomes clear that the Bakufu might be able to resist one or another of the domains, but that it cannot withstand the joint military opposition of both Satsuma and Chōshū1867 The Shogun in Kyoto resigns his officeJanuary 1868 A “restoration” (ishin維新) of imperial rule is proclaimed by the Court, resulting in a successful coup d’etat led mostly by Satsuma and Chōshū, and with support from Mito, Tosa and EchizenThis coup and the new government have profoundly conservative leadershipThe last pro-Bakufu naval units don’t surrender until Spring 1869.
37 Immediate issues The open ports Experiencing the West Extraterritoriality and loss of control of tariffs vs.Windows of opportunity through trade and development of navyExperiencing the WestAfter 1853 an explosion of interest in Western studiesThe 1860 mission to the States to ratify Townsend Harris’ treatyThe strangeness of North America and Europe to even highly educated and accomplished JapaneseThere were five more similar missions by the end of 1867
38 A study in contrasts Fukuzawa Yukichi 1835-1901 Meiji Emperor
39 Emp. Meiji 1852-1912 Becomes emperor in February 1867 The missing presence in the Meiji RestorationThe intense competition among the leaders of the “restoration” to control his personNov moves by palanquin to Edo which is renamed Tōkyō (Eastern Capital 東京)The open question of his own agency or powerHis return visit by train to Kyoto years later
40 Fukuzawa Yukichi 1835-1901 Studied Dutch in Osaka Enters Bakufu service in the new Institute for the Study of Barbarian BooksWas the interpreter for the first two Bakufu embassies to the States and Europe in 1860 and 1862Was principally responsible for popular knowledge in Japan of the WestFocused on explaining everyday things like hospitals, banks, political institutions, etc.Modernization and Westernization1868 Founds a private academy that later becomes Keio University
41 The Charter Oath of April 1868— The Search for Consensus “By this oath we set up as our aim the establishment of the national weal on a broad basis and the framing of a constitution and laws.1. Deliberative assemblies shall be widely established and all matters decided by public discussion.2. All classes, high and low, shall unite in vigorously carrying out the administration of affairs of state.3. The common people, no less than the civil and military officials, shall each be allowed to pursue his own calling so that there may be no discontent.4. Evil customs of the past shall be broken off and everything based upon the just laws of Nature.5. Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundations of imperial rule.”
42 The new times1871 Intermarriage between commoners and samurai allowed and class distinctions eliminatedTokugawa domains replaced by prefectures1872 Compulsory elementary public education beginsUniversal male military conscription requiring four years of serviceFarmers receive legal title to the land they cultivate1876 Samurai banned from wearing their swords1877 The failed Satsuma rebellion led by Saigō Takamori
43 Changing times Early modernity Modernity Collective identity LiteracyResource mobilizationUrbanizationSubject political cultureLoyalties to village and feudal lordCentralized feudalismParticipant political cultureWidespread use of inanimate sources of energyTechnologically advanced forms of communication and transportationNational armies and naviesPublic educationIndependent judiciary
44 Some additional key dates in the late-Meiji Period 1889 Meiji Constitution1890 First DietImperial Rescript on EducationVictory in Sino-Japanese War1902 Anglo-Japanese AllianceVictory in Russo-Japanese War1910 Annexation of Korea1912 Death of Meiji, suicide of Gen. Nogi
45 “The Japanese Miracle” As recently as fifty years ago, Japan was the only Asian country universally agreed to have achieved “modernity”.The manner in which this came about was perceived by many to be a kind of miracle.This launched a quest to duplicate the accomplishment elsewhere.But was it a “miracle” and could it be reproduced?