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Reconstruction Era (1863-1877). President Lincoln’s 10% Plan * “Loyal Rule” * Didn’t ask Congress * Pardon citizens * 10% vote * Re-admit states back.

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Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction Era (1863-1877). President Lincoln’s 10% Plan * “Loyal Rule” * Didn’t ask Congress * Pardon citizens * 10% vote * Re-admit states back."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reconstruction Era ( )

2 President Lincoln’s 10% Plan * “Loyal Rule” * Didn’t ask Congress * Pardon citizens * 10% vote * Re-admit states back to Union

3 President Lincoln’s Plan  1864: “Lincoln Governments” formed in LA, TN, AR * “loyal assemblies” * Weak; dependent on Union Army for survival * Military Force * Minority Rule

4 Wade-Davis Bill (1864)  50% oath of loyalty  “Iron Clad Oath”  Admit no involvement  Restrictions to elections of state officials  Must guarantee liberty of freed slaves Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH) Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD)

5 Wade-Davis Bill (1864)  “State Suicide” Theory [MA Senator Charles Sumner]  “Conquered Provinces” Position [PA Congressman Thaddeus Stevens] President Lincoln Wade-Davis Bill Pocket Veto

6 Lincoln is Dead!  Lincoln is assassinated! * “Sic Semper Tyrannus!” * Shot in the back of the head * Andrew Johnson

7 13 th Amendment  Ratified 12/1865. “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”  Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.  Ended slavery, DID NOT grant citizenship

8 Johnson & Reconstruction  Jacksonian Dem.  From TN  White Supremacist  Pro-Union; not Anti-Slave

9 Johnson becomes President after Lincoln's assassination. Pres. Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan: I. The majority of voters in each Southern state must pledge their loyalty to the U.S…. II. …and each state must ratify (approve) the Thirteenth Amendment. The Thirteenth Amendment, which banned slavery, was ratified on Dec.6, 1865

10 Johnson's Reconstruction Plan  Offered amnesty upon simple loyalty oath to all except: - Civil War Officers - Former Plantation Owners - Individuals w/ property over $20,000  New State Constitutions  Forbid slavery; secession  Pay back war debt to Feds.

11 Slavery is Dead?

12 Growing Northern Alarm!  Most S. state constitutions do not meet requirements  Johnson granted 13,500 “special pardons”  Plantation owners resume political power  Revival of southern defiance; racism BLACK CODES

13 Black Codes  Purpose: * Guarantee stable labor supply * Restore pre-emancipation system of race relations. * Assures whites will earn more $$ than blacks  Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers [tenant farmers].

14 Black Codes - laws that severely limited the rights of freedmen. African- Americans were forbidden from… …voting. …owning guns. …serving on juries. …running for political office.

15 Sharecropping

16 Tenancy & Crop Lien System Furnishing MerchantTenant FarmerLandowner Loan tools and seed up to 60% interest to tenant farmer to plant spring crop. Farmer also secures food, clothing, and other necessities on credit from merchant until the harvest. Merchant holds “lien” {mortgage} on part of tenant’s future crops as repayment of debt. Plants crop, harvests in autumn. Turns over up to ½ of crop to land owner as payment of rent. Tenant gives remainder of crop to merchant in payment of debt. Rents land to tenant in exchange for ¼ to ½ of tenant farmer’s future crop.

17 Congress Breaks with the President  Congress bars S. delegates  Joint Committee  02/1866: Johnson veto Freedmen’s Bureau bill.  03/1866: Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act.  Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes: 1st time in U. S. history!!!!

18 Radical Reconstruction ( )

19 Freedmen’s Bureau (1865)  N. Abolitionists  Help slaves; gain political power  “Carpetbaggers”  Equal opportunity  Education Reforms

20 Freedman’s Bureau School

21 Establishment of Black Colleges

22 Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes “Plenty to eat and nothing to do.”

23 14 th Amendment  Ratified in 07/1868. * Natural-Born Citizens. * Citizens Rights * Pay back for war debt  “Punish S.” for ignoring Fed. manadates

24 Radical Plan for Readmission  Military supervision (Martial Law)  States must:  Ratify 13 th, 14 th Amendments  Black Suffrage  03/1867: Military to enroll black voters

25 Reconstruction Acts of 1867  Military Reconstruction Act * 10 S. states refuse to ratify 14 th Amend. * Divide 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts.


27 Reconstruction Acts of 1867  Command of the Army Act  Tenure of Office Act  Designed to protect radical members of Lincoln’s cabinet.  Constitutional??? Edwin Stanton Sec. of War

28 President Johnson’s Impeachment  Johnson removes Stanton 02/1868.  Johnson puts pro-S. Gens. in charge  House impeaches Feb. 24 th by vote of

29 The Senate Trial  11 week trial.  Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).

30 African-Americans & Govt. Free blacks able to vote/participate in govt. White hysteria Fear of “black oppression” Southern states feel need to “re-establish” white rule Examples: - Poll Taxes- Ku Klux Klan - Black Codes- Lynchings - Literacy Tests- Grandfather Clause

31 White Hysteria: Colored Rule in the South?

32 The Balance of Power in Congress StateWhite CitizensFreedmen SC291,000411,000 MS353,000436,000 LA357,000350,000 GA591,000465,000 AL596,000437,000 VA719,000533,000 NC631,000331,000

33 Black & White Political Participation

34 Black Senate & House Delegates

35 Blacks in Southern Politics  Core voters: black vets.  Some held political office  But, politically unprepared.  The 15 th Amendment guaranteed fed. voting.

36 15 th Amendment  Ratified in  Amendment 15: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”  IMPACTS: - Forbid denying the right to vote based on race

37 The Failure of Federal Enforcement  Enforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871 [also known as the KKK Act].  “The Lost Cause”  Rise of the “Bourbons”

38 The “Invisible Empire of the South”

39 Legal Challenges to the 14 th & 15 th Amendments  The Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)  The court offered a narrow definition of the 14 th Amendment. It distinguished between national and state citizenship. It gave the states primary authority over citizens’ rights.  Therefore, the courts weakened civil rights enforcement!

40 Legal Challenges to the 14 th & 15 th Amendments  Bradwell vs. Illinois (1873)  Myra Bradwell, a female attorney, had been denied the right to practice law in Illinois. She argued that in the 14 th Amendment, it said that the state had unconstitutionally abridged her “privileges and immunities” as a citizen. The Supreme Court rejected her claim, alluding to women’s traditional role in the home.  Therefore, she should NOT be practicing law!

41 Legal Challenges to the 14 th & 15 th Amendments  U. S. vs. Reese, et. al. (1876)  The Court restricted congressional power to enforce the KKK Act.  The court ruled that the STATE alone could confer voting rights on individuals. The 15 th Amendment did NOT guarantee a citizen’s right to vote, but just listed certain impermissible grounds to deny suffrage.  Therefore, a path lay open for Southern states to disenfranchise blacks for supposedly non-racial reasons [like lack of education, lack of property, etc.]

42 Legal Challenges to the 14 th & 15 th Amendments  U. S. vs. Cruickshank (1876)  LA white supremacists accused of attacking a meeting of Blacks & were convicted under the 1870 Enforcement Acts. The Court held that the 14 th Amendment extended the federal power to protect civil rights ONLY in cases involving discrimination by STATES.  Therefore, discrimination by individuals or groups were NOT covered.

43 Abandoning Reconstruction  Northern support decreases  “Grantism” & political corruption  Panic of 1873 (6-year depression); economic issues overwhelm civil rights issues.  Concern over westward expansion and Indian wars.  Congress leaves enforcement up to states

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