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1853-6 THE CRIMEAN WAR. THE INVASION OF TURKEY BY RUSSIA.

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Presentation on theme: "1853-6 THE CRIMEAN WAR. THE INVASION OF TURKEY BY RUSSIA."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE CRIMEAN WAR

2

3 THE INVASION OF TURKEY BY RUSSIA

4 MAIN EVENTS November 1853 : Russians destroy the Turkish fleet at Sinope (in response to Turkish attack of Russian forces at Wallachia) January 1854 : French and British fleets stationed in Black sea, an ultimatum is sent to Russia to withdraw forces in February, this is ignored, a proclamation of war is then issued in March September 1854 : Britain and France invade the Crimea, attempting to seize Sevastapol at the Battle of Alma (this was the first major conflict of the Crimea and resulted in 6000 Russian deaths and the capturing of equipment dating back to 1799) The Battle of Balaclava and the charge of the Light Brigade February 1855 : Nicholas I dies and is succeeded by Alexander II October 1854-September 1855 : The Siege of Sevastapol, after a series of artillery bombardments, resulting in the loss of troops a day, Russia surrenders The war then peters out and Russia eventually agrees to peace talks

5 THE TREATY OF PARIS Signed in March 1856 European powers were given duty to protect Christian subjects in the Ottoman Empire Russia gave up its claim as the protector of the principalities Russia gives a large part of Bessarabia to Moldavia Russia prohibited from keeping a fleet in the Black Sea an has to remove all Black Sea forts The Treaty showed how other powers feared Russia’s strength and were therefore taking measures to weaken its military power The war acted as a catalyst for many key reforms within Russia

6 THE IMPACT OF THE WAR General Russia’s military failures and the strict terms of the Treaty of Paris led many to question the future of the Russian Empire Many argued that Russia’s status as a great power was now damaged Casualties ‘The Crimean war involved far heavier casualties than any other European war fought between 1815 and 1914’ Russia is thought to have lost men, most to disease, in comparison to Turkey’s deaths

7 CASUALTIESCASUALTIES OF THE CRIMEA

8 THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SERFS The Crimean war highlighted Russia’s backwardness in terms of transport, communication and technology P. 153 quote Alexander recognised weaknesses in his country and began a process of reform Serfdom underpinned the way in which Russian society was structured; it’s abolition would therefore necessitate changes in the government of the country.

9 REFORMS Local government Reduced political role for the nobility at a local level Creation of Zemstva meant local government officials now had to be elected (were the Tsars relaxing their grip?) General Expansion of the railways 2 billion roubles spent on constructing km of track

10 MILITARY REFORMS Before Crimea, the Russian army numbered around one million, made up mostly from peasants. Accommodation and discipline was poor, with ‘the gauntlet’ being used to enforce measures Morale was low, due to the impact of disease and poor clothing and equipment saw Milyutin’s programme of reforms. Service was reduced to 15 years and further training was provided at all levels Russia now had a more professional army in line with other western powers The army could also now be relied on to maintain civil order and fight overseas


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