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Impact of war and revolution on the development of Russian government.

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Presentation on theme: "Impact of war and revolution on the development of Russian government."— Presentation transcript:

1 Impact of war and revolution on the development of Russian government

2 The Crimean War 1853-6 Causes: Eastern Question Desire to preserve status as a great power Stand up to the French and British Between 650,000 and 750,000 dead (Britain 22,000) One in five died in battle


4 Aftermath: Treaty of Paris 1856 Lost land Remove naval forts along Black sea Catalyst for change: Emancipation of serfs Local government: Zemstva

5 Russo-Turkish War 1877-8 Causes Pan Slavism Poor relations with Austria

6 15,000 dead Aftermath Turkey to pay a war indemnity Territory


8 Russo-Japanese War 1904-5 Causes Fear of Japan Interest in Korea ‘What this country needs is a short victorious war to stem the tide of revolution’


10 43,000 dead Aftermath Treaty of Portsmouth 1905 Russia had to leave Manchuria War increased prices and disrupted trade Reforms: Duma Investment in transport Promise to improve living standards Press coverage: humiliating Can’t blame the defeat on Serfdom

11 Why was war with Japan so significant? High expectations: fielded largest forces Shattered image of Russia War increased prices and disrupted trade Can’t blame the defeat on Serfdom, defeat had come through poor decision making and leadership: Nicholas Had been opposition to the Tsars: from Serfs, terrorists. But opposition was isolated. The war united a number of separate strands of discontent. The concessions that the Tsar made very significant: The emergence of a national parliament (the Duma). Link with Crimean War?

12 Wars under the Tsars Similarities: Lost to weaker enemies All wars led to reform? Autocracy remains Didn’t cause the economy to crash

13 Differences Allied involvement in Crimean Social unrest 1905 higher: led to revolution War with Turkey had the least significant impact

14 World War I Causes: Alliance system Balkan crisis Assassination of Franz Ferdinand-Russia protects Serbia

15 Duration: 1.7 million dead Tsar military leader Cost 3 million roubles (foreign loans, war bonds, taxation, printing money) The aftermath: Inflation, prices rise 400% Lack of food, in particular Petrograd Protest Tsar forced to abdicate Revolution

16 Russian civil war 1917-21 Causes: WWI, Revolution Duration: Whites v Green v Red. Allied intervention Militaristic approach to rule: war communism but NEP Aftermath: Power more organised: politburo

17 World War Two 1939-45 Causes: Anschluss of Austria Nazism Failure of appeasement Failure of Nazi soviet pact Operation Barbarossa 1941

18 Duration:10 million dead Labour shortage Traitors: 50,000 at Stalingrad! 13,000 deserters Sexual assault Aftermath: Affects international relations post war

19 Physical damage to Russia Change factories back to munitions Five year plan 1946: targets achieved in 3 years Agriculture suffering, private land heavily taxed, neglect of farms. Khrushchev minister for agriculture

20 Little impact on structure of government Stalin Supreme Commander Number in the CP increased during the war Russia able to influence nature of governments in Eastern Europe: Iron Curtain

21 Cold War 1947-64 Causes Ideology USA mistrust of USSR Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan

22 Duration: Space race Effects: Very little effect on the structure of government But destalinisation Arms race expensive, living standards lower than the west

23 1. Which war is the most significant?

24 Trotsky described war as the ‘locomotive of history’. Can it be argued that change in Russia in the period 1855 to 1964 was caused only by involvement in wars?

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