Presentation on theme: "Impact of war and revolution on the development of Russian government."— Presentation transcript:
Impact of war and revolution on the development of Russian government
The Crimean War Causes: Eastern Question Desire to preserve status as a great power Stand up to the French and British Between 650,000 and 750,000 dead (Britain 22,000) One in five died in battle
Aftermath: Treaty of Paris 1856 Lost land Remove naval forts along Black sea Catalyst for change: Emancipation of serfs Local government: Zemstva
Russo-Turkish War Causes Pan Slavism Poor relations with Austria
15,000 dead Aftermath Turkey to pay a war indemnity Territory
Russo-Japanese War Causes Fear of Japan Interest in Korea ‘What this country needs is a short victorious war to stem the tide of revolution’
43,000 dead Aftermath Treaty of Portsmouth 1905 Russia had to leave Manchuria War increased prices and disrupted trade Reforms: Duma Investment in transport Promise to improve living standards Press coverage: humiliating Can’t blame the defeat on Serfdom
Why was war with Japan so significant? High expectations: fielded largest forces Shattered image of Russia War increased prices and disrupted trade Can’t blame the defeat on Serfdom, defeat had come through poor decision making and leadership: Nicholas Had been opposition to the Tsars: from Serfs, terrorists. But opposition was isolated. The war united a number of separate strands of discontent. The concessions that the Tsar made very significant: The emergence of a national parliament (the Duma). Link with Crimean War?
Wars under the Tsars Similarities: Lost to weaker enemies All wars led to reform? Autocracy remains Didn’t cause the economy to crash
Differences Allied involvement in Crimean Social unrest 1905 higher: led to revolution War with Turkey had the least significant impact
World War I Causes: Alliance system Balkan crisis Assassination of Franz Ferdinand-Russia protects Serbia
Duration: 1.7 million dead Tsar military leader Cost 3 million roubles (foreign loans, war bonds, taxation, printing money) The aftermath: Inflation, prices rise 400% Lack of food, in particular Petrograd Protest Tsar forced to abdicate Revolution
Russian civil war Causes: WWI, Revolution Duration: Whites v Green v Red. Allied intervention Militaristic approach to rule: war communism but NEP Aftermath: Power more organised: politburo
World War Two Causes: Anschluss of Austria Nazism Failure of appeasement Failure of Nazi soviet pact Operation Barbarossa 1941
Duration:10 million dead Labour shortage Traitors: 50,000 at Stalingrad! 13,000 deserters Sexual assault Aftermath: Affects international relations post war
Physical damage to Russia Change factories back to munitions Five year plan 1946: targets achieved in 3 years Agriculture suffering, private land heavily taxed, neglect of farms. Khrushchev minister for agriculture
Little impact on structure of government Stalin Supreme Commander Number in the CP increased during the war Russia able to influence nature of governments in Eastern Europe: Iron Curtain
Cold War Causes Ideology USA mistrust of USSR Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan
Duration: Space race Effects: Very little effect on the structure of government But destalinisation Arms race expensive, living standards lower than the west
1. Which war is the most significant?
Trotsky described war as the ‘locomotive of history’. Can it be argued that change in Russia in the period 1855 to 1964 was caused only by involvement in wars?