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Chapter 13: The Consolidation of Large Nation-States,

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1 Chapter 13: The Consolidation of Large Nation-States, 1859-1871
13.63: Backgrounds: The Idea of The Nation State

2 Introduction (12 years) saw the formation of new German empire, unified kingdom of Italy, drastic changes in Tsarist Russia, dual monarchy of Austria Hungary New technologies and new industries strengthened the political power of nation states Reflected greater speed of movement of ideas, people, goods RR, steamship, telegraph Nation states became dynamic forces in the evolving social and economic life of all modern societies

3 Backgrounds Before 1860 Only really 2 nation-states (France and Britain) Spain looks united geographically but is really divided Switzerland, Portugal, and the Netherlands are nation-states but small and peripheral rest were small states comprising fragments of a nation and empires Since 1860 Nation-state system prevailed Consolidation, sovereignty, and independence served large populations and small ethnic groups Served to create large nations out of smaller populations while breaking other populations into component parts map of Europe from 1871 to 1918 was simplest it ever was Mainly served to create larger units in place of small ones

4 Characteristics of nation states
Political authority is based upon the will of the people, is representative of the people People must have a common will (sense they belong to a community) The “people” are usually those who speak the same language Outsiders usually speak a different language People possess a common history or origin, race, common future, common geographic home People are committed to a collective destiny

5 Consolidation and Constitutionalism
Governments found that to effectively rule a sense of membership and support was necessary among the subjects The consolidation of large nation states had two phases Union of preexisting smaller states (territorially) Creation of new ties between government and governed (morally and psychologically) New segments of the population were admitted to political life Creation of liberal and representative institutions Favored constitutional progress Established authorities help achieve aims of the revolutionists Changes were realized through a series of wars United States civil war Crimean War Italian War Danish War Austro Prussian War Franco Prussian War

6 The Crimean War, 1854 – 1856 Crimean War helped the success of European nation movements chief significance is that it weakened Austria and Russia (backbone of Treaty of Vienna, 1815) 1st war covered by newspaper correspondents 1st war in which women (Florence Nightingale) recognized as nurses

7 Russian pressure on the Ottomans
Russia had designs on Black Sea region for long time 1853 Nicholas I moved in on Moldavia and Wallachia (Romania) Ostensibly to protect Christians in the Ottoman Empire The French consider themselves to be the protectors of Christians in the Ottoman Empire France had a long relationship with the Ottomans through trade and diplomacy Napoleon III resents Nicholas I (who sees him as a revolutionary adventurer) France encouraged the Turkish government to resist Russian claims to protect Christians in Turkey War breaks out between Russia and Turkey in 1853 France joined the side of the Turks England joined the side of the Turks Sardinia (Piedmont) joined the side of the Turks to gain support for the resolution of the Italian Question Austria (with designs on the Balkans) takes up arms against Russia England blockages the Baltic and the Black seas French and British invade Russia (via Crimea) Nicholas I died in 1855 and Alexander II sued for peace

8 Peace in 1856 Powers that met (in Paris) agreed to protect the Ottoman Empire Russia ceded the left bank of the mouth of the Danube to Moldavia Russia gave up its claim to be the protector of the Christians in the Ottoman Empire Moldavia and Wallachia united as Romania and Serbia were recognized Trouble on the horizon Napoleon III needed glory Italians wanted unification Prussians felt they were losing ground politically No role in the Peace of 1856 Change meant tearing up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 Weakness in the Austrian, Russian and Ottoman Empires ushers in the age of nationalism

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