2 #1 Part APrimate city: cities that are more than 2x the size of the next largest city AND exert social, political, and economic dominanceRank-size rule: Sizes of cities are in proportion to one another. If x is the largest city, then the second largest will be ½ x and the third largest will be 1/3 x.According to the statistics for the populations of Mexican cities, Mexico has a primate city since Mexico City is more than twice as large as the next largest city of Guadalajara. Mexico does not follow a rank-size rule in the population distribution of its cities.
3 2011 - #1 Part B Large market for goods and services Can benefit from the advantages of agglomerationCan offer high end goods and services because of larger threshold populationCreates global trade networks (primate cities can compete on global scale and attract foreign investment plus gravity model shows high degree of interaction among cities with high populations)
4 2011 - #1 Part B Unequal distribution of wealth and/or power Brain drain – migration of educated people to primate cityUnequal distribution of education, entrepreneurship, opportunitiesDisproportionate effect of disaster in the primate city on the entire countryHard for people who are not in the primate city to access essential services such as hospitals.
5 #2 Part AUsing contemporary examples, explain how each of the following has contributed to the development of national identity and the strengthening of a state.Economic developmentRelocation of a state’s capital
6 How this helps national identity… ChinaAny of the Asian TigersHow this helps national identity…Since Deng Xiaoping, China has incorporated capitalism into their economyAs of 2001, China joined World Trade Organization (WTO)Has allowed foreign investment into their countryRelocation of factories to China has provided citizens with jobsUsed the international trade approach to increase their economic developmentHave focused on skilled labor, electronics, and clothingRapid growth of economyStrong economy creates jobs, supports a sense of well being, and supports confidence in leadership and loyalty to stateEconomic prosperity helps to hide other problems the country may be experiencingNational pride reinforces national identity
7 How this helps national identity… BrazilNigeriaHow this helps national identity…Relocated capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia in order to relocate population to a central areaHelps develop the interior which was mostly uninhabitedBreak ties with colonial past (importance of cities along the coast to provide to Portugal)Relocated capital from Lagos to AbujaSince Nigeria is comprised of so many ethnic groups, there has been constant conflictCapital was relocated to a central location to accommodate different ethnic groupsStrengthens the state and provides stability
9 Nigeria: A Case Study for Language Conflicts 493 languages3 main languagesHausa (15%)Yoruba (15%)Igbo (15%)55% speak one of the other 490 languages
10 #2 Part BUsing contemporary examples, explain how each of the following may detract from the development of national identity and weaken a state.EthnicityTransportation/infrastructure
11 How this hurts national identity… YugoslaviaNigeriaHow this hurts national identity…Ethnic tensions between Serbs, Croats, and Bosnian Muslims led to genocide during the 1990sEthnic tensions between Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba has led to constant violence and fightingEthnic tension weakens loyalty to the stateTension between ethnic groups can lead to balkanization, separatism, devolution, etc.Placement of political boundaries without regard to ethnic territories leads to problems
13 Can apply irredentism here because Serbian enclaves in Croatia were claimed by nationalist Serbs in the early 1990s
14 Democratic Republic of Congo How this hurts national identity… ChileDemocratic Republic of CongoHow this hurts national identity…Elongated state therefore poor communicationsWeak government and rebel groups have deterred the maintaining of infrastructurePoor transportation infrastructure contributes to isolation and a sense of separationSize or shape of a state may hinder development
16 #1 Part BDiscuss THREE ways in which the concept of core- periphery relations helps explain the development of the urban systems shown above. Be sure to use evidence from both maps to support your conclusions.
17 #1 Part BPrimate city in Argentina vs. Rank-Size Rule in GermanyArgentina is a semi-peripheral country and city populations are not evenly distributed. The map shows that Buenos Aires is a primate city and population is therefore centered there. This can sometimes be an indicator of lower development since it often leads to unequal distribution of goods and services with Buenos Aires being dominant. In addition, Buenos Aires is in a coastal position because it was set up by Europeans looking to exploit the resources of Argentina. This demonstrates a peripheral position in the world.Germany on the other hand follows more of a rank-size distribution of population. City populations are more evenly distributed which shows more even development throughout the country thereby demonstrating their position as a core country.
18 Roads systems also help demonstrate core-periphery relations In Argentina there are less roads and they are all focused toward getting goods to their primate city of Buenos Aires. This again demonstrates that Argentina was set up to be more export oriented which shows their dependence on other countries buying their goods. Lack of infrastructure in general shows a lack of development.In Germany, roads are more evenly distributed throughout the country showing its higher levels of development and status as a core country. Germany can afford to pay for the building and maintaining of transportation systems. They are not focused on just one city because they have a more mature and integrated economy.