Presentation on theme: "Latin America Population & Settlement Ch 4 section 2."— Presentation transcript:
Latin America Population & Settlement Ch 4 section 2
Time line – LA population & life expectancy trends… 1950’s – pop = 150 million; Brazil Life ex. = 43 yrs; 1960’s & 1970’s = very high pop growth 1980’s – Life ex in Brazil = 63 1950 – 1980 – most LA countries saw 15 – 20 yr increase in life ex.; 80’s also saw slow growth in pop. 1995 – regional pop = 450 million 1990’s pop growth less than 2%; 2025 projected regional pop = 650 million
Urban Preference Attributed to cultural and economic factors. In many LA countries more than 85% of pop. lives in cities Under Spanish rule living in a city meant high status & better economic opportunity – condition in which a country has a “primate” city 3 to 4 times larger than any other city in the country. Urban Primacy – condition in which a country has a “primate” city 3 to 4 times larger than any other city in the country.
Urban Primate cities… Lima - Peru Caracas - Venezuela Guatemala - City Buenos Aires - Argentina Mexico City – Mexico
Squatter Settlements Aka ranchos, favelas, barrios Encircle LA cities – sometimes encompass more than 1/3 the population; Makeshift housing on land not owned by the people; – takes care of people’s needs because formal sector can’t. Informal Sector – takes care of people’s needs because formal sector can’t.
Informal Sector Provides housing, services & employment in squatter settlements; provides low wage jobs that are untaxed and unregulated Sometimes gov’t will take in the squatter settlement as part of the city. Peru Peru Brazil Brazil Rio Rio
Rural settlement 130 million + live in rural areas; Roughly the same number of people live in rural areas today as did in the 1960’s, however, due to improved transportation & communication systems in the region their lives are less isolated. There are wide gaps between the rural rich & poor; economic activity is more modern & varied (industry; mechanized farming). Social tension over uneven land distribution is a problem. *Agrarian reform has not been successful. * *Agrarian Reform refers to attempts to change patterns of land ownership from large plantations owned by few to small farms owned by many.
Population & Growth Movements… High pop. growth rates in LA are attributable to both RNI & immigration/migration (waves of immigrants have moved into the region for various reasons AND there have been a number of migratory population shifts within the region as well) MIGRATION TRENDS : European migration followed the wars for independence as new governments of LA opened their doors to European peasants which increased the region’s MESTIZO population (mixed Euro. & Indian ancestry); forced migration from Africa happened during the peak years of the Atlantic slave trade; when slavery ended in LA, Asian immigration began to fill that labor void & continued for economic reasons;
Population & Growth Movements… MOVEMENT WITHIN LA & NA is caused by both political & economic factors. Some people migrate for employment; others migrate to escape civil war, although the region today is largely democratic. Mexico is the largest country of origin of legal immigrants into the US & today over 60% of the US Hispanic population has Mexican ancestry. These population shifts have greatly changed the cultures of LA & the US & have led to transnationalism (due to globalization 21 st century immigrants can maintain economic & social ties to their home country much more easily), & many transnational migrants see themselves as having a dual or hybrid cultural identity. ACLU on Immigration myths & facts ACLU on Immigration myths & facts