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Understand nurse aide skills needed to provide for residents’ nutrition and hydration needs. Unit B Resident Care Skills Essential Standard NA6.0 Understand.

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Presentation on theme: "Understand nurse aide skills needed to provide for residents’ nutrition and hydration needs. Unit B Resident Care Skills Essential Standard NA6.0 Understand."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understand nurse aide skills needed to provide for residents’ nutrition and hydration needs. Unit B Resident Care Skills Essential Standard NA6.0 Understand nurse aide skills needed to provide for residents’ nutrition, hydration, and elimination needs. Indicator 6.01 Understand nurse aide skills needed to provide for residents’ nutrition and hydration needs. 6.01Nursing Fundamentals 72431

2 Hair and eyes appear dullHair and eyes appear dull Irregular bowel habitsIrregular bowel habits Weight changesWeight changes Osteoporosis and other diseasesOsteoporosis and other diseases Nursing Fundamentals Signs of Poor Nutrition 6.01

3 Results of Poor Nutrition (continued) Lack of interest - mental slowdownLack of interest - mental slowdown Skin color and appearance poorSkin color and appearance poor Nursing Fundamentals Signs of Poor Nutrition 6.01

4 Results of Poor Nutrition (continued) Anemia leading to:Anemia leading to: –tired feeling –shortness of breath –increased pulse –problems with digestion –pale skin –poor sleep patterns –headaches Nursing Fundamentals Signs of Poor Nutrition 6.01

5 Basic Nutrition Have we got it? Let’s check and see Stick diagnostics Student Name A Student Name B Nursing Fundamentals

6 Nursing Fundamentals Influences on nutrition and dietary habits 1) Aging 2) Culture

7 Metabolism slows  muscles weaken  body moves slow  activity is reduced  reduced activity decreases appetite.Metabolism slows  muscles weaken  body moves slow  activity is reduced  reduced activity decreases appetite. Nursing Fundamentals Nutritional Challenges of Geriatrics 6.01

8 Loss of vision affects the way food looks, which can decrease appetite.Loss of vision affects the way food looks, which can decrease appetite. Nursing Fundamentals Nutritional Challenges of Geriatrics 6.01

9 The aging process and some medications weaken the sense of smell and taste  which can decrease appetite.The aging process and some medications weaken the sense of smell and taste  which can decrease appetite. Nursing Fundamentals Nutritional Challenges of Geriatrics 6.01

10 Less saliva production affects chewing and swallowing.Less saliva production affects chewing and swallowing. Nursing Fundamentals Nutritional Challenges of Geriatrics 6.01

11 Dentures and poor dental health make chewing difficult.Dentures and poor dental health make chewing difficult. Nursing Fundamentals Nutritional Challenges of Geriatrics 6.01

12 Digestion takes longer and it is less efficient.Digestion takes longer and it is less efficient. Nursing Fundamentals Nutritional Challenges of Geriatrics 6.01

13 Constipation interferes with appetite.Constipation interferes with appetite. Nursing Fundamentals Nutritional Challenges of Geriatrics 6.01 X

14 Nursing Fundamentals Factors Influencing Dietary Practices Personal preferencePersonal preference AppetiteAppetite FinanceFinance IllnessIllness CultureCulture

15  The diets of Chinese, Japanese, Koreans and people from Far East include rice and tea  The diets of Spanish-speaking people include spicy dishes containing rice, beans and corn Nursing Fundamentals Culture and Dietary Practices 6.01

16 Culture and Dietary Practices (continued)  The Italian diet includes spaghetti, lasagna, and other pastas  Scandinavians have a lot of fish in their diets Nursing Fundamentals Culture and Dietary Practices 6.01

17 Culture and Dietary Practices (continued)  Americans eat a lot of meat, fast foods, and processed foods  Use of sauce and spices are culturally related Nursing Fundamentals Culture and Dietary Practices 6.01

18  Days of fasting when all or certain foods are avoided  Christian Science - avoid coffee/tea and alcohol  Roman Catholic - avoid food one hour before communion, observe special fast days Nursing Fundamentals

19  Muslim/Moslem - avoid alcohol, pork products  7th Day Adventist - avoid coffee/tea, alcohol, pork and some meats, caffeine Nursing Fundamentals

20  Baptists – some avoid coffee, tea and alcohol  Greek Orthodox - fast days, but usually “forgiven” when ill Nursing Fundamentals

21  Conservative Jewish faith –Prohibits shellfish, non- kosher meats such as pork –Requires special utensils for food preparation Nursing Fundamentals

22  Conservative Jewish faith –Forbids cooking on Sabbath –Forbids eating of leavened bread during Passover Nursing Fundamentals

23  Conservative Jewish faith –Forbids serving milk and milk products with meat –Strict rules regarding sequence in which milk products and meat may be consumed Nursing Fundamentals

24 Nursing Fundamentals Therapeutic, Modified, or Special Diets

25 Help body organs to maintain and/or regain normal functionHelp body organs to maintain and/or regain normal function Treat metabolic disorders by regulating amount of foodTreat metabolic disorders by regulating amount of food Nursing Fundamentals Therapeutic, Modified or Special Diets 6.01

26 Add or eliminate calories to cause a change in body weightAdd or eliminate calories to cause a change in body weight Assist with digestion of food by taking foods out of diet that irritate digestive systemAssist with digestion of food by taking foods out of diet that irritate digestive system Restrict salt (sodium) intake to prevent or decrease edemaRestrict salt (sodium) intake to prevent or decrease edema Nursing Fundamentals Therapeutic, Modified or Special Diets 6.01

27 Clear liquidClear liquid Full liquidFull liquid BlandBland Low residueLow residue Controlled carbohydrate (Diabetic)Controlled carbohydrate (Diabetic) Low fat/low cholesterolLow fat/low cholesterol Nursing Fundamentals Types of Therapeutic, Modified or Special Diets

28 High fiberHigh fiber Low calorieLow calorie High calorieHigh calorie Sodium restrictedSodium restricted High proteinHigh protein Mechanical soft, chopped, pureedMechanical soft, chopped, pureed Nursing Fundamentals Types of Therapeutic, Modified or Special Diets

29 Nursing Fundamentals Diet Cards List: the resident’s namethe resident’s name Information about special dietsInformation about special diets Food allergiesFood allergies Likes and dislikesLikes and dislikes

30 Nursing Fundamentals Low-Sodium Diets Residents with high blood pressure, heart disease, kidney disease, or retention may be placed on a low- sodium diet. Salt packets will not be on the food tray. Common abbreviations: “NAS” (no added salt) and Low Na (low sodium)

31 Nursing Fundamentals Low-Protein Diets Residents with severe kidney disease may be on a low protein diet. Proteins breakdown into substances that can harm the kidneys. Extent of protein restriction will vary depending on the stage of kidney disease.

32 Nursing Fundamentals Fluid-Restricted Diets Residents with severe heart or kidney disease may need fluid restriction. Measure and document exact amounts of fluid intake. Report excesses to the nurse. Do not offer additional fluids or foods that contain fluids. Notify the nurse if the resident complains of thirst. Common abbreviation is “RF” (restrict fluids)

33 Nursing Fundamentals Low-Fat/Low-Cholesterol Diets Residents with high levels of cholesterol, gall bladder disease, diseases that interfere with fat digestion, and liver disease may be placed on these diets.Residents with high levels of cholesterol, gall bladder disease, diseases that interfere with fat digestion, and liver disease may be placed on these diets. Diets permit skim milk, low fat cottage cheese, fish, white meat of turkey and chicken, veal, and vegetable fats. Use of monounsaturated fats such as olive oil, canola, and peanut oils are encouraged.Diets permit skim milk, low fat cottage cheese, fish, white meat of turkey and chicken, veal, and vegetable fats. Use of monounsaturated fats such as olive oil, canola, and peanut oils are encouraged. Do not offer additional fluids or foods that contain fluids. Notify the nurse if the resident complains of thirst.Do not offer additional fluids or foods that contain fluids. Notify the nurse if the resident complains of thirst. Common abbreviation is “Low-Fat/Low-Chol”Common abbreviation is “Low-Fat/Low-Chol”

34 Nursing Fundamentals Modified Calorie Diets Residents may need to reduce calories to lose weight or increase calories to gain weight.Residents may need to reduce calories to lose weight or increase calories to gain weight. Do not offer residents on a low-cal diet extra food. Check with the nurse.Do not offer residents on a low-cal diet extra food. Check with the nurse. Common abbreviation is “Low-Cal/High-Cal”Common abbreviation is “Low-Cal/High-Cal”

35 Nursing Fundamentals Dietary Management of Diabetes Calories and carbohydrates are carefully controlled.Calories and carbohydrates are carefully controlled. Fats and proteins are regulated.Fats and proteins are regulated. Amounts of food are determined by energy needs.Amounts of food are determined by energy needs. Diabetics must eat all the food served on the tray.Diabetics must eat all the food served on the tray. Do not offer other foods without the nurse’s approval.Do not offer other foods without the nurse’s approval.

36 Nursing Fundamentals Dietary Management of Diabetes Meal tray may contain artificial sweetenersMeal tray may contain artificial sweeteners Common abbreviations for diabetic diets are “NCS” no concentrated sweets and the amount of calories allowed followed by “ADA” (American Diabetic Association)Common abbreviations for diabetic diets are “NCS” no concentrated sweets and the amount of calories allowed followed by “ADA” (American Diabetic Association)


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