5Where Did RTI Come From? Mastery Learning Effective Schools Movement Time + Support = LearningEffective Schools MovementALL students can learnProfessional Learning CommunitiesPyramid of interventions
6Four Questions of PLCs Four Questions of RTI What is it we expect students to learn?How will students demonstrate they have learned it?How will we respond when students don’t learn?How will we respond when students already know it?About which students do we have concerns?In what areas do we have concerns?What supports are/should we be providing?Has the student responded to instruction and intervention?
7The Three Big Ideas of PLCs The Four Critical Questions of PLCs
8The Three Big IdeasFocus on Learning Collaborative Culture Focus on Results
9Focus on LearningThe fundamental purpose of the school is to ensure high levels of learning for all students. This focus on learning translates into four critical questions that drive the daily work of the school. Educators demonstrate their commitment to helping all students learn by working collaboratively to address four questions.
10What are Characteristics of a Focus on Learning? Mid-lesson checks for understanding End of lesson exit slips Built-in preview days Built-in review days An expectation that students will re-complete an assignment or assessment related to critical learning on which they did not demonstrate mastery
11Collaborative Culture No school can help all students achieve at high levels if teachers work in isolation. Schools improve when teachers are given the time and support to work together to clarify essential student learning, develop common assessments for learning, analyze evidence of student learning, and use that evidence to learn from one another.
12What are Characteristics of a Collaborative Culture? Regular time for collaboration Norms that focus collaboration Evidence of collaboration outside of “Collaboration Time” Collaboration is not an option – no one can opt out Products and evidence of improved student learning from collaborative efforts
13Focus on ResultsPLCs measure their effectiveness on the basis of results rather than intentions. All programs, policies, and practices are continually assessed on the basis of their impact on student learning. All staff members receive relevant and timely information on their effectiveness in achieving intended results.
14What are Characteristics of a Focus on Results? Teachers enthusiastically analyze their data in relation to other teachers data Teachers are willing and eager to share strategies that have resulted in high level so student learning Teachers visit one another’s classrooms to study best practices
15Four Critical Questions of RTI What do we want students to learn? How will students demonstrate they have learned it? What will we do if they don’t learn? What will we do if they already know it?
16What Do We Want Students To Learn? What should each student know and be able to do as a result of each unit, grade level, and/or course?
17What are Characteristics of a Curriculum Focused on Essential Learning Outcomes? Teacher teams have collaboratively identified essential learning targets Teacher have collaboratively unpacked learning targets Teachers prioritize instruction within a unit of instruction to ensure that all students master the essentials
18How will students demonstrate they have learned it? Are we monitoring each student’s learning on a timely basis?
19How Will Teams Gather Evidence of Student Learning? Teacher teams have……designed common formative assessments to measure student learning of essential standards…administered common formative assessments to measure student learning of essential standards…collectively analyzed evidence to determine……the specific learning needs of each child…the effectiveness of the instruction the child receives in meeting these needs
20Assessment Universal screeners Who requires intensive supports CFAs Mastery of essentials at Tier 1DiagnosticsWhy are students at riskProgress monitoringResponse to Tier 2 and 3
21What Will We Do If They Don’t Learn? What systematic process is in place to provide additional time and support for students who are experiencing difficulty?
22What are Characteristics of Systematic Interventions? Schools have identified…When supplemental supports can be provided in additional to core instruction on essential standardsWho on staff is available, qualified, and trained to provide supportsWhat resources and strategies can be used to meet student needs
23What Will We Do If They Already Know It? What systematic process is in place to extend and enrich learning to greater levels of depth and complexity?
24What are Characteristics of 21st Century Skills? Teams have identified the 21st Century Skills that they believe students should possess Teams have identified how essential learning can be explored to greater levels of depth and complexity Teams have differentiated content, the learning processes, and products that students create to demonstrate mastery
25What is RTI?Systems of SupportCoordinationCommunicationSuccess
26What is RTI? RTI is a Verb Problem-Solving Process Systemizing the Great of Work of TeachersOrganized PassionHO – RTI is…
27What Might RTI Look Like? Tier 1Viable, Clearly Defined CurriculumFormative AssessmentsScaffolds and DifferentiationSmall Group Supports27
35Tier 1Viable, Clearly Defined Curriculum Common Formative Assessments Scaffolds and Differentiation Small Group SupportsQuick reference to morning conversation – the structure of collaborative teacher teams drives this work and helps us professionally identify next steps as opposed to grabbing onto the “next best thing” .HO – RTI Tiers 1 and 235
36Viable Curriculum “What do we want our students to learn?” Why the task of a teacher teams? Why collaboratively? What is the BC Context?Handout I’ll develop: Current BC standards and current drafts of standards being developedBC context: increased focus on cross-curricular competencies vrs. Rote learning of information. However, what academic, learning skills are critical for students to effectively engage in cross-curricular learning. Magnifies the need to identify essential learning outcomes that have leverage.HO – Cognitive Planning Protocol
37Table Talk HO – RTI Process for Teacher Teams Proactive planning for student engagement and success.How will those collaborative task impact learning?HO – RTI Process for Teacher Teams
38Common Formative Assessments “How will our students demonstrate their learning?” Why the task of a teacher teams? Why collaboratively? What is the BC Context?Each question presented w/ explanation followed by participant inputBC context – less pressure for formative assessments that are “packaged” – the goal is to ensure student learning. Who better to design assessments for that purpose?Connection to Western Canadian Protocol – Assessment for, of, as learning.HO – Data Analysis Protocol
39Table Talk Why would we link the development of CFA’s to planning? What are the benefits of collectively designing or identifying common formative assessments?What barriers need to be considered in your context?Chris, what questions would you pose to the participants to reflect here? I think I have too many for the time frame.
40Scaffolds, Differentiation and Small Group Supports Why the task of a teacher teams? Why collaboratively? What is the BC Context?Cognitive planning process“Teaching is the highest form of understanding” –AristotleCombining the depth of knowledge developed from defining a viable curriculum w/ teachers’ professional depth of knowledge of student learning and students as learners is a powerful outcome of this work.Other notes:Our reality – our classrooms are comprised of learners with complex needs – we know (can predict) that our students will respond to our instruction differently, that they will need DI to successful master these essential or critical learning outcomes to strengthen our Tier 1 outcomes – what can they look like? This proactive planning for learning is an essential element of RTI – however, like every aspect of RTI, we know this planning process is more powerful when collaboration and professional interchange of ideas is part of the process. This does not mean that teachers won’t be doing much of this work directly for their learning environments but it does mean that there are opportunities to collaborate and reflect.
41Table TalkDespite our efforts with providing highly effective Tier 1 instruction, is it likely we will have students who will need extra time or supports to master the essential learning outcomes? In addition, our data analysis which includes the common formative assessments provides critical data - discuss data analysis protocolStar = Data Analysis protocol
42Tier 2If It’s Predictable, It’s Preventable More Time Alternate Approaches Mastery of Prioritized Tier 1 ContentQuick reference to morning and connect to why the collaborative element of the teacher teams is critical – no teacher alone is responsible but as an educational community we are prepared to respond.Will use a math example of how the intervention may look different than initial instructionChris, Will also highlight the difference between Tier 2 and 3 here and connect to the work you are doing in your session.42
43Table TalkCautions:In class supports to greatest extent possible. However, Tier 2 or 3 for that matter – not equivalent to place but to level and intensity of support. CRITICAL that the professionals who work with students collaborate – allows us to collectively infuse common language and to reinforce interventions.
44Collaborative Teacher Three Critical TeamsSchoolInterventionTeamSchoolLeadershipTeamCollaborative TeacherTeamsHO – RTI Teams44
45RTI Teams Teacher Teams Define the roles of YOUR team. What “outcomes” are produced?Define the membership of YOUR team.Define the meeting days and times of YOUR team.Define the norms and agendas of YOUR team. To what tasks do they contribute?Define when and how YOUR team communicates with others.TeacherTeamsHO – RTI Teams45
46Three Critical Teams School Leadership Team Define the roles of YOUR team. What “outcomes” are produced?Define the membership of YOUR team.Define the meeting days and times of YOUR team.SchoolLeadershipTeamDefine the norms and agendas of YOUR team. To what tasks do they contribute?Define when and how YOUR team communicates with others.HO – RTI TeamsHO – RTI Process for Leadership Teams46
47Three Critical Teams School Intervention Team Define the roles of YOUR team. What “outcomes” are produced?Define the membership of YOUR team.Define the meeting days and times of YOUR team.Define the norms and agendas of YOUR team. To what tasks do they contribute?Define when and how YOUR team communicates with others.SchoolInterventionTeamHO – RTI Teams47
48Three Critical Teams School Intervention Team School Leadership Team TeacherTeams48
49Systems & Cycle of Inquiry Identify Formulate questions Develop an intervention plan Implement the plan Monitor student progress Develop / refine the hypothesisRegardless of the studentRegardless of the teacherRegardless of the school4949
53Develop an Intervention Plan Implement the Plan When Who What
54Monitor Student Progress There is no RTI unless we frequently check to ensure that students are “responding.”Foundational (Universal) skillsCBMsEssential standards (learning targets)CFAsBehaviorsCICOHO – RTI Systematic Supports54
55Define / Revise the Hypothesis Different experiences, expertise, and perspectivePrincipal Counselor Psychologist Speech therapist Special educatorsEnglish language development specialist Reading specialist Librarian Community resource officer NurseThe importance of clinicians, early and oftenHO – RTI Systematic Supports
56Define / Revise the Hypothesis What if Tiers 1, 2, and 3 don’t work?Are our actions justified?Increase intensity – frequency, duration, specificity, ratioHO – RTI Systematic Supports56
57Decision Making Within Tiers HO – Decision Making Within Tiers of Support
59Tier 1Academic engagement/instruction of ALL students Multiple opportunities to respond to instruction Immediate corrective feedback Scaffolded practice of new skills Cumulative review of previously taught skills Daily minute small group supports to more homogenously groups of students based on need
60Tier 2More time and differentiated supports, as measured by common formative assessments30 minute flex timeMore homogeneous groupingsIn smaller groups from teachers with evidenced-based successOther staff…to reduce the teacher-student ratioStagger times during which each grade level has flex time
61Tier 3For students who have been screened to have significant deficits in foundational skills……or who have not responded to Tier 1 and 2 supportIntensive supports provided in addition to Tier 1 and 2 supportsAs targeted as possible, e.g., phonemic awareness, single-syllable phonics, or multisyllabic phonics
62Tier 3Temporarily, in place of another important content, other than literacy and mathematicsCreatively scheduledWhen students would otherwise be working independentlyAlternating what content students missAdjusted to match student needs and revised until the student is adequately responding to intervention
63RTI Model Tier 1 Academics Social Behaviors Academic Behaviors Tier 1 AcademicsSocial BehaviorsAcademic BehaviorsTier 1Standards-driven mapsFramework to improve and continuously refine and improve instructionCommon formative assessments to provide the “target” and drive instructionSchoolwide common expectations…Resp ect, Responsibility, Readiness…consiste ntly reinforcedExplicit teaching of desired behaviors5:1 positive acknowledgmentsExecutive functioning and self-regulatory behaviors…Motivation, Metacognition, MonitoringSupport with short-term and long-terms academic tasksExplicitly taught and consistently embedded within content area instructionHO - Model RTI
64RTI Model Tier 2 Academics Social Behaviors Academic Behaviors Tier 2 AcademicsSocial BehaviorsAcademic BehaviorsTier 2Specific times, schedules, and identified personnelMore time and alternative approaches to master essentialsEvidence from common formative assessments and data analyses protocolsSimplified Functional Behavior Analyses (FBAs) define “what” and “why”Identification and communication of strategyCheck In-Check Out to mentor and monitorRe-teaching and more frequent reinforcementModerate, behavioral skill deficits
65RTI Model Tier 3 Academics Social Behaviors Academic Behaviors Tier 3 AcademicsSocial BehaviorsAcademic BehaviorsTier 3Deficits in foundational skills – and not yet responding to interventionIntensive, 30-minute sessions in place of less-essential contentShifts from A-week to B-weekMath – FASTT Math, Fraction NationPhonological Awareness – Fast ForWord, Early Reading InterventionPhonics – Fast ForWord, REWARDSFluency – Reading Assistant, Six Minute SolutionComprehension – Making ConnectionsDiagnosed intensive needs in specific areas – anger, trauma, etc.Research-based interventions – Anger Coping and CBITS in small groups or individuallyDiagnosed intensive needs in specific areas – motivation, self-image, etc.Research-based approaches in attribution (Weiner) and self-efficacy (Bandura)
66RTI Plan Academics Social Behaviors Academic Behaviors Tier 1 Tier 2 AcademicsSocial BehaviorsAcademic BehaviorsTier 1Tier 2Tier 3HO - Model RTI Plan
73Alternative Schedules – Whittier FridayCollaboration7:45-8:50Period 19:00-9:48Period 29:54-10:42Break10:42-10:51Period 310:57-11:45Period 411:51-12:39Lunch12:39-1:09Period 51:15-2:03Period 62:09-2:57Whittier High School, Whittier, CA
74Alternative Schedules – San Juan Hills MondayPeriod 06:45-7:47Period 18:00-8:52Period 29:02-9:54Break9:54-9:59Period 310:09-11:01Period 411:11-12:03Lunch12:03-12:38Period 512:48-1:40Period 61:50-2:42
75Alternative Schedules – San Juan Hills TuesdayCollaboration7:15-7:55Period 28:05-9:45Interventions9:55-10:25Break10:25-10:30Period 410:40-12:20Lunch12:20-12:55Period 61:05-2:45
76Alternative Schedules – San Juan Hills Wednesday and FridayPeriod 06:45-7:50Period 18:00-9:40Interventions9:50-10:25Break10:25-10:30Period 310:40-12:20Lunch12:20-12:55Period 51:05-2:45
77Alternative Schedules – San Juan Hills ThursdayPeriod 06:45-7:50Period 28:00-9:40Interventions9:50-10:25Break10:25-10:30Period 410:40-12:20Lunch12:20-12:55Period 61:05-2:45San Juan Hills High School, San Juan Capistrano, CA
81Alternative Schedules – Lynbrook FridayPeriod 17:35-8:25Period 28:30-9:20Period 39:25-10:20Break10:20-10:35Period 411:40-11:30Period 511:35-12:25Lunch12:25-1:05Period 61:10-2:00Period 72:05-2:55Lynbrook High School, San Jose, CA
82HO – RTI Scheduling Template Analyze Time BlocksIdentify staff and available times Schedule lunches, passing periods, and breaks Schedule Tier 2 supports Schedule Tier 3 supports Schedule common prep periods Schedule non-daily content Schedule ELA blocks Schedule mathematics blocks Schedule other contentHO – RTI Scheduling Template
83Inventory Staff Availability List ALL staff Instructional day in 30-minute time blocks Describe current responsibilitiesHO – RTI Personnel Inventory
84Inventory Resources Scour and glean from: All classrooms and closets within the schoolDistrict office warehousesOther schools in the areaIn the following domains:Phonological Awareness PhonicsAdvanced Phonics Vocabulary/ComprehensionFluency Early NumeracyComputation Behavior
85Reflection What ideas and practices have been confirmed and validated? What challenges do you believe still exist?What is an immediate next step?
86Thank You! Chris Weber firstname.lastname@example.org @Chi_educate Chris Weber Educationhttps://chriswebereducation.com