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Confined Spaces “Non-Permit”“Permit-Required”. ETSU Confined Spaces  Physical Plant’s Confined Space Policy  Approved October 17, 2003.

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Presentation on theme: "Confined Spaces “Non-Permit”“Permit-Required”. ETSU Confined Spaces  Physical Plant’s Confined Space Policy  Approved October 17, 2003."— Presentation transcript:

1 Confined Spaces “Non-Permit”“Permit-Required”

2 ETSU Confined Spaces  Physical Plant’s Confined Space Policy  Approved October 17, 2003

3  The space is not designed for continuous employee occupancy  The space is large enough to enter and perform work  The space has limited means of entry and exit Confined Space Defined

4 Confined Space Examples ●Tanks ●Manholes ●Boilers ●Furnaces ●Sewers ●Hoppers ●Vaults ●Pipes ●Tunnels ●Bins ●Pits ●Silos

5 Not Designed for Continuous Worker Occupancy Most confined spaces are not designed to enter and work in on a regular basis. Most confined spaces are not designed to enter and work in on a regular basis. The space encloses materials or processes. The space encloses materials or processes. Occasional worker entry for inspection, repair, cleanup, maintenance, etc. Occasional worker entry for inspection, repair, cleanup, maintenance, etc.

6 Permit-Required Confined Space A Permit-Required Confined Space is a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics: ● Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere; ● Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant; ● Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could become trapped or asphyxiated; or ● Contains any other serious safety or health hazard.

7 Non-Permit Confined Space ● A non-permit confined space does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death of serious physical harm. ● A permit-required confined space can be reclassified as a non-permit space.

8 ENTRY by Entrant ● The act by which a person passes through an opening into a permit-required confined space. ● Occurs during work activities when the entrant’s body breaks the plane of an opening into the space

9 Categorizing the Work Space Space large enough to enter &; Limited or Restricted entry or exit &; Not designed for continuous worker occupancy. NO Not a Confined Space YES Hazardous Atmosphere Engulfment Hazard Configuration Hazard Any other recognized serious hazard Permit- Required Confined Space Non Permit- Required Space YESNO Or OrOr Confined Space

10 To reclassify a permit-required confined space, a pre-entry checklist shall be completed and certified by an entry supervisor prior to entry. Confined Space Entry The checklist shall contain the date, the location of the space, and the signature of the person providing the certification.

11 Pre-Entry Checklist Pre-Entry Checklist Pre-Entry Checklist Pre-Entry Checklist Physical Plant employees shall follow the pre-entry procedures that establish safe entry for our employees. Pre-Entry Procedures

12 Unfavorable Natural Ventilation Lack of air movement in and out of the space can create an atmosphere much different than the outside atmosphere. Lack of air movement in and out of the space can create an atmosphere much different than the outside atmosphere. Deadly gases can be trapped inside. Deadly gases can be trapped inside. Organic materials can decompose. Organic materials can decompose. May not be enough oxygen due to presence of other gases or chemical reactions such as rusting. May not be enough oxygen due to presence of other gases or chemical reactions such as rusting.

13 Confined Space Entry - Hazards Manholes often remain covered for long periods of time. Poisonous gases, such as hydrogen sulfide can accumulate inside of manholes. H2SH2S Manholes may also accumulate highly flammable gases such as methane. CH 4

14 Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres 19.5 %Minimum acceptable oxygen level %Decreased ability to work strenuously. Impair coordination. Early symptoms %Respiration increases. Poor judgment %Respiration increases. Lips blue. 8-10%Mental failure. Fainting. Nausea Unconsciousness. Vomiting. 6-8%8 minutes - fatal, 6 minutes - 50% fatal 4-5 minutes - possible recovery. 4-6%Coma in 40 seconds. Death

15 Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres Oxygen level above 21%. Oxygen level above 21%. Causes flammable and combustible materials to burn violently when ignited. Causes flammable and combustible materials to burn violently when ignited. Never use pure oxygen to ventilate. Never use pure oxygen to ventilate. Never store or place compressed tanks in a confined space. Never store or place compressed tanks in a confined space.

16 Flammable Atmospheres Critical Factors: Critical Factors: Oxygen content in the air. Oxygen content in the air. Presence of a flammable gas, or vapor Presence of a flammable gas, or vapor Presence of dust (visibility of 5’ or less) Presence of dust (visibility of 5’ or less) Ignition Sources: (Hot Work Permit) Ignition Sources: (Hot Work Permit) Sparking or electric tool Sparking or electric tool Welding / cutting operations Welding / cutting operations Smoking Smoking

17 Hydrogen Sulfide Decomposition of materials. Human waste. Decomposition of materials. Human waste. Rotten egg odor at low concentrations. Rotten egg odor at low concentrations. Possibly no warning at high concentrations. Possibly no warning at high concentrations. PPMEffectTime PPMEffectTime 10 ppmPermissible Exposure Level8 Hours Mild Irritation - eyes, throat1 Hour Significant Irritation1 Hour Significant Irritation1 Hour Unconsciousness, Death1/2 - 1 Hour Unconsciousness, Death1/2 - 1 Hour >1000Unconsciousness, DeathMinutes >1000Unconsciousness, DeathMinutes

18 Carbon Monoxide Odorless, Colorless Gas. Odorless, Colorless Gas. Combustion By-Product. Combustion By-Product. Quickly collapse at high concentrations. Quickly collapse at high concentrations. PPMEffectTime PPMEffectTime 50Permissible Exposure Level8 Hours 50Permissible Exposure Level8 Hours 200Slight headache, discomfort3 Hours 200Slight headache, discomfort3 Hours 600Headache, discomfort1 Hour 600Headache, discomfort1 Hour Confusion, nausea, headache2 Hours Confusion, nausea, headache2 Hours Tendency to stagger1 1/2 Hours Tendency to stagger1 1/2 Hours Slight heart palpitation30 Min Slight heart palpitation30 Min Unconsciousness30 Min Unconsciousness30 Min.

19 ?? Fresh outside air is blown into the space to dilute and remove contaminants, and supply oxygen. Fresh outside air is blown into the space to dilute and remove contaminants, and supply oxygen. O2O2 If concentrations of gases and vapors are found to be at harmful levels, the confined space must be ventilated before entry. Confined Space Entry - Hazards O2O2 O2O2 O2O2 Fresh Air

20 Testing The Atmosphere Verify presence of safe work atmosphere. Verify presence of safe work atmosphere. Test at various depths of a confined space. Test at various depths of a confined space. Top, Middle, Bottom Top, Middle, Bottom

21 Always test the air at various levels to be sure that the entire space is safe. Good air near the opening does NOT mean there is good air at the bottom! Methane is lighter than air.Methane is lighter than air. Carbon Monoxide is the same as air.Carbon Monoxide is the same as air. Hydrogen Sulfide is heavier than air.Hydrogen Sulfide is heavier than air. Methane is lighter than air.Methane is lighter than air. Carbon Monoxide is the same as air.Carbon Monoxide is the same as air. Hydrogen Sulfide is heavier than air.Hydrogen Sulfide is heavier than air.

22 Emergency Procedures Call 911 It is very important to communicate to the dispatcher that a confined space rescue is necessary. Should conditions develop which require extrication, and the entrant cannot get out of the confined space on their own, the attendant must call for emergency assistance at once!

23 BARRIERS and SIGNS must be placed around any openings to protect the entrants and passers-by. CAUTION Opening in Ground Keep Out !

24 Contractor Confined Space Entry Contractors must follow their own established confined space entry procedure. Contractors must follow their own established confined space entry procedure. A joint entry by ETSU employees and contractors will be coordinated by an ETSU entry supervisor. A joint entry by ETSU employees and contractors will be coordinated by an ETSU entry supervisor. Contractors must supply their own air monitors. Contractors must supply their own air monitors. Contractors are required to contact a Physical Plant representative at the completion of an entry to discuss any hazards confronted during the entry. Contractors are required to contact a Physical Plant representative at the completion of an entry to discuss any hazards confronted during the entry.

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26 Ventilation First option to correct problems. First option to correct problems. Must be aware of hazards you are trying to correct in the confined space. Must be aware of hazards you are trying to correct in the confined space. Air intake in a safe location to draw fresh air only. Air intake in a safe location to draw fresh air only. Continuous ventilation whenever possible. Continuous ventilation whenever possible. Retest the confined space before entry. Retest the confined space before entry.

27 Isolation Locking and tagging out electrical sources. Locking and tagging out electrical sources. Blanking and bleeding pneumatic and hydraulic lines. Blanking and bleeding pneumatic and hydraulic lines. Disconnecting mechanical drives and shafts. Disconnecting mechanical drives and shafts. Securing mechanical parts. Securing mechanical parts. Blanking sewer and water flow. Blanking sewer and water flow. Locking and tagging out shutoff valves. Locking and tagging out shutoff valves.

28 Respirators Air-Purifying Respirators Air-Purifying Respirators Filter dangerous substances from the air. Filter dangerous substances from the air. Must know the type and amount of hazardous substance present in the confined space. Must know the type and amount of hazardous substance present in the confined space. NEVER use with oxygen deficiency! NEVER use with oxygen deficiency! Air-Supplying Respirators Air-Supplying Respirators Deliver a safe supply of breathing air from a tank or an uncontaminated area nearby. Deliver a safe supply of breathing air from a tank or an uncontaminated area nearby.

29 Entrant Responsibilities Know the hazards of the space. Know the hazards of the space. Proper use of equipment in space. Proper use of equipment in space. Communicate with the attendant. Communicate with the attendant. Places his/her lockout/tagout device on isolation point(s) before entry Places his/her lockout/tagout device on isolation point(s) before entry Alert the attendant whenever Alert the attendant whenever they recognize a dangerous situation. they recognize a dangerous situation. Detect a prohibited condition Detect a prohibited condition

30 Entrant Responsibilities Exit from the space as quickly as possible whenever: Exit from the space as quickly as possible whenever: An order to evacuate is given by the attendant or entry supervisor An order to evacuate is given by the attendant or entry supervisor The entrant recognizes any warning signs of exposure or a dangerous situation The entrant recognizes any warning signs of exposure or a dangerous situation The entrant detects a prohibited condition. The entrant detects a prohibited condition. The multi-gas detector alarms The multi-gas detector alarms

31 Attendant Responsibilities Knows the hazards that might be faced during entry Knows the hazards that might be faced during entry Aware of possible behavioral effects of hazard exposure to the entrant Aware of possible behavioral effects of hazard exposure to the entrant Maintains a count of entrants in the space Maintains a count of entrants in the space Remains outside the permit space during entry operations Remains outside the permit space during entry operations

32 Attendant Responsibilities Communicates with the entrants and alerts if evacuation is needed. Communicates with the entrants and alerts if evacuation is needed. Monitors activities inside and outside the space determining if it is safe. Monitors activities inside and outside the space determining if it is safe. Performs non-entry rescue (tripod, non- entry retrieval device) Performs non-entry rescue (tripod, non- entry retrieval device) Summon rescue services if person needs assistance to escape space (911) Summon rescue services if person needs assistance to escape space (911)

33 Entry Supervisor Responsibilities Knows the hazards that may be faced during entry, including mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of exposure. Knows the hazards that may be faced during entry, including mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of exposure. Verifies that the appropriate entries have been made on the permit. Verifies that the appropriate entries have been made on the permit. Verifies that all tests specified by the permit have been conducted Verifies that all tests specified by the permit have been conducted Verifies that all procedures and equipment specified by the permit are in place before approving the permit and allowing entry Verifies that all procedures and equipment specified by the permit are in place before approving the permit and allowing entry

34 Entry Supervisor Responsibilities Terminates the entry and cancels the permit as required when: Terminates the entry and cancels the permit as required when: The entry operations have been completed The entry operations have been completed A condition that is not allowed under the entry permit arises in or near the space A condition that is not allowed under the entry permit arises in or near the space (Note: The employer shall retain the permit for at least 1 year. Entry supervisor turn in permits to Health & Safety at the Physical Plant.)

35 Entry Supervisor Responsibilities Verifies that rescue services are available Verifies that rescue services are available Removes unauthorized individuals who attempt to enter the permit space Removes unauthorized individuals who attempt to enter the permit space Verifies that acceptable entry conditions are maintained during entry and that all requirements of the permit are met. Verifies that acceptable entry conditions are maintained during entry and that all requirements of the permit are met.

36 Summary  Confined spaces are generally classified into two categories Permit Required Permit Required Have the potential to contain serious safety and health hazards Have the potential to contain serious safety and health hazards Non Permit Required Non Permit Required

37 Summary  Some common confined space hazards include: Atmospheric hazards Atmospheric hazards Moving parts Moving parts Tight spaces Tight spaces Engulfment hazards Engulfment hazards

38 Summary  The Company’s “entry permit system” is designed to ensure that confined space hazards are controlled during the entry process

39 Summary  The entry supervisor makes sure all entry procedures are followed as outlined on the entry permit

40 Summary  The standby attendant acts as the eyes and ears of the entry process, monitoring conditions both inside and outside the space  The standby attendant may not enter the confined space during a rescue

41 Summary  The confined space entrants are the only ones authorized to enter a confined space  Entrants must know all potential hazards, maintain communications with the attendant and immediately exit the space when instructed to evacuate

42 Summary  Each member of the entry team has a specific role to play in the entry process  By following the requirements of the entry permit system, the entry team is able to work safely in confined spaces


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