5Not Designed for Continuous Worker Occupancy Most confined spaces are not designed to enter and work in on a regular basis.The space encloses materials or processes.Occasional worker entry for inspection, repair, cleanup, maintenance, etc.
6Permit-Required Confined Space ● Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;● Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant;● Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could become trapped or asphyxiated; or● Contains any other serious safety or health hazard.A Permit-Required Confined Space is a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:
7Non-Permit Confined Space ● A non-permit confined space does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death of serious physical harm.● A permit-required confined space can be reclassified as a non-permit space.
8ENTRY by Entrant● The act by which a person passes through an opening into a permit-required confined space.● Occurs during work activities when the entrant’s body breaks the plane of an opening into the space
9Categorizing the Work Space Space large enough to enter &;Limited or Restricted entry or exit &;Not designed for continuous workeroccupancy.NONot a Confined SpaceYESConfined SpaceHazardous AtmosphereOrPermit-RequiredConfinedSpaceNonPermit-RequiredSpaceEngulfment HazardYESNOOrConfiguration HazardOrAny other recognizedserious hazard
10Confined Space EntryTo reclassify a permit-required confined space, a pre-entry checklist shall be completed and certified by an entry supervisor prior to entry.The checklist shall contain the date, the location of the space, and the signature of the person providing the certification.
11Pre-Entry Procedures Pre-Entry Checklist Physical Plant employees shall follow the pre-entry procedures that establish safe entry for our employees.Pre-Entry Checklist
12Unfavorable Natural Ventilation Lack of air movement in and out of the space can create an atmosphere much different than the outside atmosphere.Deadly gases can be trapped inside.Organic materials can decompose.May not be enough oxygen due to presence of other gases or chemical reactions such as rusting.
13Confined Space Entry - Hazards Manholes often remaincovered for long periodsof time. Poisonous gases, such as hydrogen sulfidecan accumulate inside ofmanholes.CH4Manholes may alsoaccumulate highlyflammable gasessuch as methane.H2S
14Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres 19.5 % Minimum acceptable oxygen level % Decreased ability to work strenuously. Impair coordination. Early symptoms % Respiration increases. Poor judgment % Respiration increases. Lips blue. 8-10% Mental failure. Fainting. Nausea Unconsciousness. Vomiting. 6-8% 8 minutes - fatal, 6 minutes - 50% fatal 4-5 minutes - possible recovery. 4-6% Coma in 40 seconds. Death
15Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres Oxygen level above 21%.Causes flammable and combustible materials to burn violently when ignited.Never use pure oxygen to ventilate.Never store or place compressed tanks in a confined space.
16Flammable Atmospheres Critical Factors:Oxygen content in the air.Presence of a flammable gas, or vaporPresence of dust (visibility of 5’ or less)Ignition Sources: (Hot Work Permit)Sparking or electric toolWelding / cutting operationsSmoking
17Hydrogen Sulfide PPM Effect Time Decomposition of materials. Human waste.Rotten egg odor at low concentrations.Possibly no warning at high concentrations.PPM Effect Time10 ppm Permissible Exposure Level 8 HoursMild Irritation - eyes, throat 1 HourSignificant Irritation 1 HourUnconsciousness, Death 1/2 - 1 Hour>1000 Unconsciousness, Death Minutes
19Confined Space Entry - Hazards If concentrations ofgases and vapors are found to be at harmful levels, the confined space must be ventilated beforeentry.??Fresh outsideair is blown intothe space to diluteand removecontaminants, andsupply oxygen.O2Fresh AirO2O2O2
20Testing The Atmosphere Verify presence of safe work atmosphere.Test at various depths of a confined space.Top, Middle, Bottom
21Always test theair at various levelsto be sure that theentire space is safe.Good air near the opening does NOT mean there is good air at the bottom!Methane is lighter than air.Carbon Monoxide is the same as air.Hydrogen Sulfide is heavier than air.
22Emergency Procedures Call 911 Should conditions develop which require extrication, and the entrant cannot get out of the confined space on their own, the attendant must call for emergency assistance at once!Call911It is very important to communicate to the dispatcher that a confined space rescue is necessary.
23CAUTIONOpening in GroundKeep Out !BARRIERS and SIGNS must be placed around any openings to protect the entrants and passers-by.
24Contractor Confined Space Entry • Contractors must follow their own established confined space entry procedure.• A joint entry by ETSU employees and contractors will be coordinated by an ETSU entry supervisor.• Contractors must supply their own air monitors.• Contractors are required to contact a Physical Plant representative at the completion of an entry to discuss any hazards confronted during the entry.
26Ventilation First option to correct problems. Must be aware of hazards you are trying to correct in the confined space.Air intake in a safe location to draw fresh air only.Continuous ventilation whenever possible.Retest the confined space before entry.
27Isolation Locking and tagging out electrical sources. Blanking and bleeding pneumatic and hydraulic lines.Disconnecting mechanical drives and shafts.Securing mechanical parts.Blanking sewer and water flow.Locking and tagging out shutoff valves.
28Respirators Air-Purifying Respirators Air-Supplying Respirators Filter dangerous substances from the air.Must know the type and amount of hazardous substance present in the confined space.NEVER use with oxygen deficiency!Air-Supplying RespiratorsDeliver a safe supply of breathing air from a tank or an uncontaminated area nearby.
29Entrant Responsibilities Know the hazards of the space.Proper use of equipment in space.Communicate with the attendant.Places his/her lockout/tagout device on isolation point(s) before entryAlert the attendant wheneverthey recognize a dangerous situation.Detect a prohibited condition
30Entrant Responsibilities Exit from the space as quickly as possible whenever:An order to evacuate is given by the attendant or entry supervisorThe entrant recognizes any warning signs of exposure or a dangerous situationThe entrant detects a prohibited condition.The multi-gas detector alarms
31Attendant Responsibilities Knows the hazards that might be faced during entryAware of possible behavioral effects of hazard exposure to the entrantMaintains a count of entrants in the spaceRemains outside the permit space during entry operations
32Attendant Responsibilities Communicates with the entrants and alerts if evacuation is needed.Monitors activities inside and outside the space determining if it is safe.Performs non-entry rescue (tripod, non-entry retrieval device)Summon rescue services if person needs assistance to escape space (911)
33Entry Supervisor Responsibilities Knows the hazards that may be faced during entry, including mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of exposure.Verifies that the appropriate entries have been made on the permit.Verifies that all tests specified by the permit have been conductedVerifies that all procedures and equipment specified by the permit are in place before approving the permit and allowing entry
34Entry Supervisor Responsibilities Terminates the entry and cancels the permit as required when:The entry operations have been completedA condition that is not allowed under the entry permit arises in or near the space(Note: The employer shall retain the permit for at least 1 year. Entry supervisor turn in permits to Health & Safety at the Physical Plant.)
35Entry Supervisor Responsibilities Verifies that rescue services are availableRemoves unauthorized individuals who attempt to enter the permit spaceVerifies that acceptable entry conditions are maintained during entry and that all requirements of the permit are met.
36Summary Confined spaces are generally classified into two categories Permit RequiredHave the potential to contain serious safety and health hazardsNon Permit Required
37Summary Some common confined space hazards include: Atmospheric hazardsMoving partsTight spacesEngulfment hazards
38SummaryThe Company’s “entry permit system” is designed to ensure that confined space hazards are controlled during the entry process
39SummaryThe entry supervisor makes sure all entry procedures are followed as outlined on the entry permit
40SummaryThe standby attendant acts as the eyes and ears of the entry process, monitoring conditions both inside and outside the spaceThe standby attendant may not enter the confined space during a rescue
41SummaryThe confined space entrants are the only ones authorized to enter a confined spaceEntrants must know all potential hazards, maintain communications with the attendant and immediately exit the space when instructed to evacuate
42SummaryEach member of the entry team has a specific role to play in the entry processBy following the requirements of the entry permit system, the entry team is able to work safely in confined spaces