Presentation on theme: "The world is too big for us. Too much is going on, too many crimes, too much violence and excitement. Try as you will, you get behind in the race in spite."— Presentation transcript:
The world is too big for us. Too much is going on, too many crimes, too much violence and excitement. Try as you will, you get behind in the race in spite of yourself. It's an incessant strain to keep pace... and still, you lose ground. Science empties its discoveries on you so fast that you stagger beneath them in hopeless bewilderment. The political world is news seen so rapidly you are out of breath trying to keep pace... Everything is high pressure. Human nature cannot endure much more. Editorial in the Atlanta Constitution, Some things change, others....
Stock Issues and the Research Process “Stock issues, very simply, are hunting grounds for arguments. They provide general phrasing of potential issues that correspond to the inherent obligations of the advocate of change” --- Ziegelmueller and Kay Argumentation: Inquiry and Advocacy
Some Context Remember that the clash is over issues implied by the proposition/resolution Some issues will be unique to the specific topic being debated Others will be manifestations of generic or stock issues that arise in almost any significant decision
Stasis—The Historical Roots of Stock Issues Points of clash are known as points of stasis Facts Definitions Quality or significance Objection or interpretation
Basic Stock Issues: Questions of Fact Definition: What does the proposition or claim mean? Criteria: What standards should be used to determine if the proposition is true? Application to the Case: What information & evidence confirms or denies the relationship(s) asserted in the proposition?
Basic Stock Issues: Questions of Value What are the relevant values on this issue? What value hierarchy is most appropriate among these values? How can we tell when the value has been met?
Core Values What are some core values that we strive for generally? Truth Peace Life Justice Courage National Sovereignty Health Wealth Liberty/Freedom Success Knowledge Spiritual Maturity
Basic Stock Issues: Questions of Policy Ill or Need for Change Blame Cure Cost
Ill or Need for Change Inadequacies or problems in current system Ill is the current wrong or harm that the advocate for change is trying to resolve Qualitatively demonstrate impact of ill: how bad? Quantitatively demonstrate extent of ill: how big? Goal for affirmative is to establish significance of ill and that a change is necessary
Blame Blame is similar but not synonymous with cause Focus is on shortcomings of present system Cannot solve problem or achieve desired goal Structure of the current system Will not solve problem or achieve desired goal Deeply held attitudes, beliefs, values of people Should not solve problems or achieve desired goals Flaws in overriding philosophy of system
Cure The Cure is the new policy that will remedy the ill There is no merit in changing the current policy if the change will not solve the problems identified with the current policy Two parts to the cure Plan of Action Discussion of its effects on the Ill
Plan of Action Plans must have at least the following An agent or mechanism A mandate or clear set of actions to perform
Cost What are the costs, disadvantages or harms of the proposed change? Qualitative Quantitative
Other Stock Issues Practicality: is the plan workable? Cost-Benefits analysis Comparative Advantage
It’s True.... “The advocate who is thorough, creative, and thoughtful in the application of the stock issues perspective will crate better arguments than will the advocate who is sloppy, indifferent, or uncreative.” Thomas A. Hollihan and Kevin T. Baaske: Arguments and Arguing: The Products and Process of Human Decision Making
Stock issues as Guiding Questions What is the problem? How big is the problem? What’s causing the problem? What should be done to correct the problem? How well will that action solve the problem? Will the action create other benefits or harms?
Let’s Talk... What do stock issues have to do with the research process?
Citing Sources Cue us before citing any critical evidence. “According to...” Establish credibility of author a publication “Dr. Martin Smith, a leading expert on child development.... Need only give year of information not page number, etc.
Application Review each of the stock issues discussed with a partner. Be sure you understand them. Do you have any clarification questions? Can you identify how the opposing team will address each issue? Can you give an example of each stock issue as it applies to your topic? Which stock issue is most critical?
Next Time Quiz on CT 8, 9 and DG 4, 5 Workshop for upcoming debates Contest to determine speaking order for round one! Come in with agreed near-final draft of resolution you will debate.