2Useful definitionsRenaissance is a French word meaning rebirth- rebirth in that they resumed a civilization like that of the Greco-RomansThe basic institutions of Europe originated in the Middle AgesRenaissance marked a new era in thought and feelingIt pertained to high culture and hence to a limited number of persons
3Definitions Continued Italian Renaissance involved the whole area of culture which is neither theological nor scientific but concerns moral and civic questions about what man ought to be or ought to do.Purely secular attitude appearedLife was no longer seen by leading thinkers as a brief preparation for the life after
4Why Italy? Geography is Destiny Benefits of Medieval trade routes Venice and Genoa
5Why Italy Continued Merchants made fortunes in commerce Lent money to Princes and Popes and thus made more money as bankersRejoiced in the beautiful things and psychological satisfactions that money could buyOutlook was secular
6Why Italy Cont. Italian towns were independent city –states Italy did not exist as a unified stateTowns competed against each other-civic pride
7Changing AttitudesWhat arose in Italy was a new conception of man himselfThis world was so exciting that another world need not be thought ofWhat captivated the Italians was a sense of mans tremendous powers.Formerly there was a disdain for the things of the world. Now a life of involvement was also prized.
8Terms and Quotes“The whole glory of man lies in activity” Leonardo BruniVirtu: The quality of being a man- demonstration of human powers
9The Birth of “Literature” Italian HumanismThe Birth of “Literature”The greatest writers wrote about man, not God, placing man in the foreground, exalting him, praising him, questioning him, criticizing him, but not despising him and his worldly city as the Augustinians had been doing for a thousand years.
10Birth of Humanism The literary movement of the Renaissance Modern literature first appeared in the 14th and 15th centuries in ItalyA class of men who saw themselves as writersHumanists used writing to please and amuse their readers
11Humanism: ThoughtsHumanism was the scholarly study of the Latin and Greek classics and the ancient Church fathers for both their own sake and in the hope of a rebirth of ancient norms and valuesUnlike their scholastic rivals, Humanists were less bound to tradition; they did not focus all of their attention on summarizing and comparing the views of recognized authorities on a text or a question, but went directly to the original sources themselves. Their most respected sources were classical and biblical, not medieval.
12Humanists Wrote a good deal in Latin Preferred Latin style of the classical Roman periodComplained that Middle Age Latin was too monkish, scholasticAlso wrote in the Vernacular, ItalianDefinition: VernacularUsing a language native to a region rather than a literary language (Italian in place of Latin)In the ancient writers the humanists found a new range of interests, discussion of political and civic questions
13The birth of Italian Humanism Petrarch, Dante, Boccaccio
14Francesco Petrarch 1304-1374 “The first man of letters” First Italian humanistTrained for law and the clergy he criticized both professions for their “Scholasticism”Wrote Sonnets to Laura-clearly meant to be literary productionsWrote in Italian to popularize his ideasAlong with Boccaccio sought to create the renaissance
15Outside events The invention of the printing Press The fall of Constantinople in 1453
16PetrarchHis critical textual studies, elitiism and contempt for the allegedly useless learning of the scholastics were features that many later humanists shared
17Sonnets to Laura May or may not have existed Lara in Latin means fame Married to another manInspiration for Poetry
18Petrarch, Cont. Literature became a kind of calling A consideration of moral philosophy no longer subordinate to theologyHow human beings should adjust to the worldwhat a good life could or ought to be,where the genuine rewards for living were to be found
20Euro triviaIn what European country would you find the city of Antwerp?Belgium
21Other Italian Humanists Christine de Pisan The city of ladies chronicle of great woment in historyLeonardo Bruni- Florentine Historian. Showed a need for authentic sourcesPico della Mirandola Oration on the dignity of manBaldasare Castiglione The Book of the Courtier“must converse with facility, be proficient in sports, know how to dance and appreciate music, should know Latin and GreekMacchiavelli The Prince 1513
26Humanist Education Medieval schooling had been chaotic and repetitious Renaissance separated students by age and classLatin was the Principal subject with Greek addedLearned Latin and Greek to read the ancient writings
27Dante Alighieri 1265-1321 Divine Comedy written in Italian in 1300 Broken into three parts, Hell, Purgatory and heavenThe classical poet Virgil leads him through Hell and PurgatoryHis muse Beatrice leads him through heavenAllegorically, symbolically and mystically his vision of a universe structured by reason and unified by faith came together and worked
28Neo PlatonismPlato had expressed a very flattering view of human natureEternal sphere of being and a perishable world in which humans actually livedPico Della Mirandola’s oration on the dignity of man was very platonic. Neo Platonism is based on one central doctrine: the human soul is immortal and the center of the universe. It is the only thing that sits midway between the abstract realm of ideas and the physical world—as such, it is the mediator between these two worlds.