BRANCHES An idea may branch many times to include both closely and distantly related ideas. ARROWS You may want to use arrows to join ideas from different branches. GROUPINGS If a number of branches contain related ideas, you may want to draw a circle around the whole area. LISTS Charts, tables and lists can help to get related ideas in order EXPLANATORY/EXPLORATORY NOTES. You may want to write a few sentences in the Map itself, to explain, question, or comment on some aspect of your Map -- for example, the relationship between some of the ideas.
Cerebral map Fishbone map Network tree Spider map Web map Lists
Introduction:Tells the reader what you are going to do in the essay. Main body: Presents your argument. Conclusion: Says how you have done what you promised in the introduction and brings everything together.
What is a documented essay? An original piece of work which assimilates and synthesises evidence in a creative way to give a new perpective on the subject. A focused piece of writing usually 2000- 3000 words long.
Planning the structure of the essay Draft an outline/plan –Based on your thesis statement, reading and notes Decide on quotation and references. – based on reading, quotations you have found and recorded
The Writing Process Plan your time- schedule blocks with breaks in between, taking into account factors such as word length and due dates. Write several drafts, with breaks in between Remember, writing is a process, not a product. The product is the final stage in the process.
Writing the first draft Make sure you have sufficient information to support your thesis –If not more reading may be necessary Sort notes so they are grouped under topics Write the first draft –At this stage you are not aiming for perfection in writing eg style, grammar,vocabulary, spelling
Reasons for quoting and paraphrasing references Provide support for claims to your writing Give examples of several points of view on a subject Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own Expand the breadth or depth of your writing
Avoiding plagiarism Acknowledge any sources with proper documentation in text and in references Use quotation marks for direct quotes Paraphrase, ie use your own words if possible, and acknowledge the source Summarising: shorten and paraphrase the original if it is too long- again don’t forget to acknowledge
Redraft, check and proofread A continual process Make sure your style is appropriate eg formal –Academic words –Academic structures passives, hedging, nominalisation. Make writing more concise –Avoiding repetition and cutting out unnecesary words eg relative clauses.
Grammar structures: hedging Modal verbs: –Anger may culminate in a variety of behaviour reactions. Would + appear/seem: –It would seem that the north was more favoured than the south Adverbs eg arguably, apparently, roughly –It was, arguably, the strongest leadership the department had ever had.
Paraphrasing: Nominalisation. The process of nominalization turns verbs (actions or events) into nouns (things, concepts or people). Crime was increasing rapidly and the police were becoming concerned. The rapid increase in crime was causing concern among the police. The text is now no longer describing actions: it is focused on objects or concepts
Academic Vocabulary Which words could you use instead of the underlined? Expert systems can help out the user in the diagnosis of problems. Research expenditures have gone up to nearly 350 million dollars. Building a nuclear power plant will not get rid of the energy problem completely Assist increase eliminate
Final proof-reading Leave an interval, get some distance from your writing. Check for meaning Eg read text aloud to yourself Check for spelling Eg read text backwards to make sure you read for spelling not meaning Get someone else involved eg colleague/tutor
Writing styles Many styles APA, MLA, ASA, etc. APA (American Psychological Association) style is commonly used in the social sciences Style covers issues such as –Title page –Layout –Referencing and in-text citations –Order of pages eg abstract, body, references, appendices –Technical: margins, spacing, font size and type
APA style documentation In text: Paraphrase Meyerson & Fletcher (2000) contend that it took a revolution to get women where they are today. (p. 126) Direct quote ‘Women comprise only 10% of senior managers in Fortune 500 companies.’ (Meyerson & Fletcher 2000, p. 126) In the references list: Meyerson D.E. & Fletcher J.K. (2000) A modest manifesto for shattering the Glass Ceiling. Harvard Business Review 78(1), 126-128
Summary The writing process does not normally start until the research phase is complete. The writing process is a cycle, the paper is drafted and redrafted. Changes, including correction, paraphrasing and redrafting can occur at any time in the process Final stage is proofreading, editing for style and perhaps comments from another person.
Task: Write time plan for a 2000 word documented essay based on the brainstorming you did at the beginning of the session, due in 6 weeks (Mid-March) How much time for research? How much time for planning? How much time for drafts? How many drafts? How much time in between each? How much time each day for writing? How much time for proofreading, final editing? Will anyone else read it? At what stage? Submission date.