Presentation on theme: "RO Academic Assignment Learning Outcomes Knowledge and Understanding 1.Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the topic. 2.Describe subject knowledge."— Presentation transcript:
RO Academic Assignment Learning Outcomes Knowledge and Understanding 1.Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the topic. 2.Describe subject knowledge using a clear and logical structure and in an appropriate academic style. Meet the given word limit. Intellectual Skills 3. Explore a broad range of appropriate information, integrating material so the assignment flows in a coherent way. 4. Select and summarise relevant arguments and reach appropriate conclusions in a balanced way. Practical Skills (Research Skills) 5. Demonstrate ability to access, research and apply appropriate academic sources. 6. Demonstrate accurate citation and referencing skills. * Transferable Skills 7. Liaises appropriately with tutor in person, by email or phone and responds positively to feedback. 8. Demonstrate use of appropriate ICT skills in presentation using the guidance provided.
Academic Writing Style POINTS TO REMEMBER WHEN WRITING YOUR ASSIGNMENTS. As well as using appropriate language and aiming for 100% accuracy in your grammar and vocabulary, you should also remember that you're writing for someone else, and hence the importance of punctuation, sentences, paragraphs and overall structure, all of which help the reader. AVOID SOME ASPECTS OF INFORMAL ENGLISH don't (do not!) use contractions (eg it's, he'll, it'd etc): always use the full form (it is/has, he will, it would/had). don't use colloquial language or slang (eg kid, a lot of/lots of, cool) always use capital letters appropriately and never use the type of language used in texting! always write as concisely as you can, with no irrelevant material or “waffle” avoid overuse of brackets; don’t use exclamation marks or dashes; avoid direct questions; don’t use “etc”.
make sure you write in complete sentences: A complete sentence always contains a verb, expresses a complete idea and makes sense standing alone. To check that you are writing in complete sentences, try reading your sentences aloud, pausing as indicated by the punctuation. Can each sentence stand alone as a complete thought? If further information is needed to complete the idea, then it is not a complete sentence. For example: There is another theory which should not be ignored. There is another theory. Which should not be ignored. divide your writing up into paragraphs use connecting words and phrases to make your writing explicit and easy to follow For example: Desktop computers are cheaper and more reliable than laptops; furthermore, they are more flexible. Prices fell by more than 20% last year. As a result, sales increased by 15%. check your grammar and spelling carefully
MAKE YOUR WRITING FORMAL AND IMPERSONAL avoid too much personal language (I, my, we etc). Some tutors prefer you to avoid it completely. Never use emotive language; be objective rather than subjective. Objective: Observation of measurable facts. Commonly found in encyclopedias, textbooks, journals, news reporting. Subjective: Personal opinions, assumptions, interpretations and beliefs Commonly found in newspaper editorials, blogs, biographies, comments on the Internet. you should consistently use evidence from your source reading to back up what you are saying and reference this correctly. avoid sexist language, such as chairman, mankind. Don’t refer to “the doctor” as he; instead, make the subject plural and refer to them as they. Avoid he/she, herself/himself etc. avoid being too dogmatic and making sweeping generalisations. It is usually best to use some sort of “hedging” language (see below) and to qualify statements that you make.
HEDGING/AVOIDING COMMITMENT In order to put some distance between what you’re writing and yourself as writer, to be cautious rather than assertive, you should: avoid overuse of first person pronouns (I, we, my, our) use impersonal subjects instead (It is believed that..., it can be argued that …) use passive verbs to avoid stating the ‘doer’ (Tests have been conducted) use verbs (often with it as subject) such as imagine, suggest, claim, suppose use ‘attitudinal signals’ such as apparently, arguably, ideally, strangely, unexpectedly. These words allow you to hint at your attitude to something without using personal language. use verbs such as would, could, may, might which ‘soften’ what you’re saying use qualifying adverbs such as some, several, a minority of, a few, many to avoid making over generalisations.
Referencing Your Assignment What is referencing? Referencing is a system used in the academic community to indicate where ideas, theories, quotes, facts and any other evidence and information used to undertake an assignment, can be found. Why do I need to reference my work? To avoid plagiarism, a form of academic theft. Referencing your work correctly ensures that you give appropriate credit to the sources and authors that you have used to complete your assignment. Referencing the sources that you have used for your assignment demonstrates that you have undertaken wide-ranging research in order to create your work. What do I need to reference? All the information that you have used in your assignment will need to be acknowledged. It is essential to make a note of all the details of the sources that you use for your assignment as you go along.
Harvard Reference Example: … ensuring the pitch is not too muddy or any debris such as glass are located on the playing surface, ensuring a player is fit enough to participate in the game i.e. no injury concerns and ensuring all protective clothing is worn at all times such as shin pads. (Bird, S., Black, N. and Newton. P., 1997 pp 181-182) This allows early motion and rehabilitation. There is a low perioperative morbidity and a rapid return to the activities of daily living and employment. (Cross, M.J., 1998). The reference list comes at the very end of your work and should be in alphabetical order with the title of the book or article in italics. Reference list: Bird,.S., Black,.N., and Newton,.P., 1997. Sports Injuries. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. Cross, M.J., 1998. ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURIES: Treatment and Rehabilitation. Available: http://www.sportsci.org/encyc/aclinj/aclinj.html. Last accessed 2nd July.
PLAGIARISM WHAT IS PLAGIARISM? Many people think of plagiarism as copying another's work or borrowing someone else's original ideas. But terms like "copying" and "borrowing" can disguise the seriousness of the offence. ACCORDING TO THE OXFORD ONLINE DICTIONARY, TO "PLAGIARIZE" MEANS to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own to use (another's production) without crediting the source to commit literary theft to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterwards.
BUT CAN WORDS AND IDEAS REALLY BE STOLEN? According to the law, the answer is yes. The expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property and is protected by copyright laws, just like original inventions. Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded in some way (such as a book or a computer file). ALL OF THE FOLLOWING ARE CONSIDERED PLAGIARISM: turning in someone else's work as your own copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit failing to put a quotation in quotation marks giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not. Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided, however, by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed and providing your audience with the information necessary to find that source is usually enough to prevent plagiarism.