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Published byRocio Chessman Modified about 1 year ago

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Solids › Deformations › Stress › Strain › Elasticity Fluids › Pressure

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Anything that occupies space and has mass. › Volume › Mass › Density Exhibits gravitational attraction Has inertia

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Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Supersolids Superfluids

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Elasticity Malleability Ductility Plasticity Strength Hardness Flexibility

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Elastic and plastic materials are both deformed when subjected to force Difference: › Elastic: material returns to its original dimension when force is removed › Plastic: deformation is permanent Elastic materials may exhibit plasticity. When and how?

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Both are determined by the crystal lattice of the metal, and the strength of the bond between molecules of the metal Copper is malleable and ductile. Aluminum is malleable but not as ductile as copper.

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In the general use, they are the same; the ability o a material to resist deformation Concrete is hard but it may not be as strong as metal. Hardness … deformation due to compression Strength … deformation due to tension

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Also known as Law of Elasticity Robert Hooke For relatively small deformations, the magnitude of deformation is directly proportional to the deforming force For relatively small deformations, the magnitude of deformation is directly proportional to the deforming force.

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Conditions that fall under Hooke’s Law › Relatively small deformation › Deformation is within the elastic limit › The material returns to its original dimension when the force is removed

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Greater deformation requires greater force. The ratio of these too defines the elasticity of the material

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Deformation will now be called strain in our analysis, and the deforming force will be represented as stress. Note: However do not think that stress is a force.

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Also called ELASTICITY OF LENGTH Describes the stiffness of materials; resistance to compression and tension in one axis Y High value of Y means high resistance

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elasticity of shape modulus of rigidity Also called elasticity of shape or modulus of rigidity S High value of S means high rigidity

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elasticity of volume Also called elasticity of volume compressibility Its reciprocal is called compressibility K Higher value of K means the material is harder to compress.

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SubstanceYoung’s Modulus (GPa) Shear Modulus (GPa) Bulk Modulus (GPa) Aluminum Bone Brass Copper Steel Quartz

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A wire 2.50 m long has a cross – sectional area of 2.00x10 -3 cm 2. When stretched by a force of 80.0 N it elongates by 5.00x10 -2 cm. Determine › the tensile stress › the tensile strain › the Young’s Modulus of this kind of wire. If this material has twice the cross-sectional area with the same length, what must be the magnitude of deformation when subjected to the same force?

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A certain metal can withstand a maximum shear stress of 8.65 GPa. What magnitude of force is required to puncture a hole of 3.00 cm radius on a metal bar that is 4.00 cm thick?

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How much is the decrease in the volume of 5.00 cubic centimeter of aluminum when submerged in the sea at a depth where the pressure is 2.35 MPa?

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A vertical steel beam in a building supports a load of 6.00x10 4 N. If the length of the beam is 4.00 m and its cross-sectional area is 8.00x10 -3 m 2, find the distance it is compressed along its length.

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A solid sphere of volume m 3 is dropped in the ocean to a depth of about 2,000 m where the pressure increases by 2.00x10 7 Pa. Lead has a bulk modulus of 7.70 GPa. What is the change in the volume of the sphere?

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What magnitude of force is required to puncture a square hole, 3.00 cm on each side, on a steel bar of 5.00 cm thickness? The maximum stress that steel can withstand is approximately 85.0 GPa

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Prepare for seatwork on Elastic Moduli Answer the following questions in your LNB. › What is the atmospheric pressure at sea level (standard atmospheric pressure)? › Differentiate gauge pressure and absolute pressure. › State Pascal’s Principle on hydrostatic pressure. › Illustrate and explain Pascal’s Principle using Pascal’s vases and hydraulic press.

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