Presentation on theme: "ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS"— Presentation transcript:
1ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS We shall discuss the deformation of solids in terms of the concepts of stress and strain.Stress is the external force acting on an object per unit cross-sectional area.Strain is proportional to stress; the constant of proportionality depends on the material being deformed and on the nature of the deformation. Strain is a measure of the degree of deformationstrain is proportional to stress
4The tension in the cable was 940 N The tension in the cable was 940 N. What diameter should a 10-m-long steel wire have if we do not want it to stretch more than 0.5 cm under these conditions?Solution: From the definition of Young’s modulus, we can solve for the required cross-sectional area. Assuming that the cross section is circular, we can determine the diameter of the wire. From Equation of Young Module, we haveThe radius of the wire can be found fromTo provide a large margin of safety, we would probably use a flexible cable made up of many smaller wires having a total cross-sectional area substantially greater than our calculated value.
5Squeezing a Brass Sphere A solid brass sphere is initially surrounded by air, and the airpressure exerted on it is N/m2 (normal atmosphericpressure). The sphere is lowered into the ocean to adepth at which the pressure is N/m2. The volumeof the sphere in air is 0.50 m3. By how much does this volumechange once the sphere is submerged?Solution From the definition of bulk modulus, we haveBecause the final pressure is so much greater than the initial pressure, we can neglect the initial pressure and state thatThe negative sign indicates a decrease in volume.
6TEMPERATURE AND THE ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Heat is the transfer of energy from one object to another object as a result of a difference in temperature between the twoThermal equilibrium is a situation in which two objects in thermal contact with each other cease to exchange energy by the process of heat.Thermal equilibrium is a situation in which two objects in thermal contact with each other cease to exchange energy by the process of heat.If objects A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third object C,then objects A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other.Celsius temperature scale, this mixture is defined to have a temperatureof zero degrees Celsius, which is written as 0°C; this temperature is calledthe ice point of water. Another commonly used system is a mixture of water andsteam in thermal equilibrium at atmospheric pressure; its temperature is 100°C,which is the steam point of water.
7THE CONSTANT-VOLUME GAS THERMOMETER AND THE ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE SCALEFahrenheit scale. This scale sets the temperature of the ice point at 32°F and thetemperature of the steam point at 212°F. The relationship between the Celsius andFahrenheit temperature scales is
8THERMAL EXPANSION OF SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS At ordinary temperatures, the atoms in a solid oscillate about their equilibrium positions with an amplitude of approximately [m] and a frequency of approximately 1013 [Hz].The average spacing between the atoms is about [m].As the temperature of the solid increases, the atoms oscillate with greater amplitudes; as a result, the average separation between them increases.The average coefficient of linear expansion:
10Expansion of a Railroad Track A steel railroad track has a length of m when the temperature is 0.0°C. (a) What is its length when the temperature is 40.0°C?Solution Making use of Table 19.2 and noting that the change in temperature is 40.0°C, we find that the increase in length isIf the track is m long at 0.0°C, its length at 40.0°C is:m.(b) Suppose that the ends of the rail are rigidly clamped at 0.0°C so that expansion is prevented. What is the thermal stress set up in the rail if its temperature is raised to 40.0°C?From the definition of Young’s modulus for a solid, we haveBecause Y for steel is N/m2 (see Table 12.1), we haveIf the rail has a cross-sectional area of 30.0 cm2, what is the force of compression in the rail?
11One mole of any substance is that amount of the substance that contains Avogadro’s number The number of moles n of a substance is related to its mass m through the expressionwhere M is the molar mass of the substance (see Section 1.3), which is usually expressed in units of grams per mole (g/mol). For example, the molar mass of oxygen (O2) is 32.0 g/mol. Therefore, the mass of one mole of oxygen is 32.0 g.One mole (mol) of a substance is that amount of the substance that contains as many particles (atoms, molecules, or other particles) as there are atoms in 12 g of the carbon-12 isotope. One mole of substance A contains the same number of particles as there are in 1 mol of any other substance B. For example, 1 mol of aluminum contains the same number of atoms as 1 mol of lead.
12Size of each atom:A solid cube of aluminum (density 2.7 g/cm3) has a volume of 0.20 cm3. How many aluminum atoms are contained in the cube?Solution Since density equals mass per unit volume, the mass m of the cube isTo find the number of atoms N in this mass of aluminum, we can set up a proportion using the fact that one mole of aluminum (27 g) contains 6.02x1023 atoms:What is the size of an aluminum atom: mAl=13 amu, 13x1.66x10-27 =2.158x10-26 kgSize of each atom:
14You are designing apparatus to support an actor of mass 65 kg who is to “fly” down to the stage during the performanceof a play. You decide to attach the actor’s harness to a130-kg sandbag by means of a lightweight steel cable runningsmoothly over two frictionless pulleys, as shown in Figure. You need 3.0 m of cable between the harness and the nearest pulley so that the pulley can be hidden behind a curtain.For the apparatus to work successfully, the sandbag must neverlift above the floor as the actor swings from above the stage to the floor. Let us call the angle that the actor’s cable makes with the vertical . What is the maximum value can have before the sandbag lifts off the floor?Sol.: