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© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection according to IEC Lightning and Surge Protection 1
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Damage due to Lightning and Surges Lightning and Surge Protection 2
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Danger due to Lightning Strokes MCR 110 kV data TV 400/230 V ABC Company mobile phone 2 km approx. 1,900,000 lightning strokes in Germany per year* *Ref.: BLIDS, Siemens AG, Analysis of telephone 3
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Quelle: Lightning flasches cloud to earth 4
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Branch-specific Costs caused by a One-hour Loss of Production Costs of a one-hour loss of production Paper approx. 10,000 € Branch Car Industry approx. 250,000 € (depending on the section) Computing Centreapprox. 500,000 € (the potential data loss can no longer be quantified) Power Stations approx. 90,000 € Car Industry Supplier approx. 12,500 € Brewery approx. 10,000 € 5 Lightning and Surge Protection
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Generation and Effects Lightning and Surge Protection 6
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Causes of Surges due to Lightning Discharges Direct lightning strike: L1 L2 L3 PEN 20 kV 1b Induced voltage in loops IT network power supply 1 1 Striking of external lightning protection system, process structure (in industrial plants), cables etc. R st 1a Voltage drop at the implse earthing resistance R st Distant lightning Strike: 2a Strike into medium- voltage overhead lines 2c Fields of the lightning strike 2c 2b Surge travelling waves on overhead lines due to cloud-to-cloud lightning 7
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Surge Protection Lightning Prot. Level Current amplitude kA I200 II150 III - IV100 Ref.: IEC û E = î · R st Example: û E = 100 kA · 1 = 100 kV i t î wave form 10 / 350 µs Galvanic Coupling Lightning Voltage for a System EBB R st
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Influences on Electrical Installations Causes of Surges M Surges (SEMP) Switching operations Earth faults / Short circuits Tripping fuses Parallel installation of power and IT conductor systems Direct lightning strike (LEMP) Galvanic coupling Inductive / Capacitive coupling Indirect lightning strike Conducted partial lightning currents Inductive / Capacitive coupling 9
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection ParametersLightning Protection Level IIIIII-IV Lightning Current Parameters according to IEC I (kA) W/R (MJ/ ) Q s (As) Q long (As)
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO International Standardisation Lightning and Surge Protection 11
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection IEC General Principles IEC Risk Management IEC Physical Damage to Structures and Life Hazard IEC Electrical and Electronic Systems IEC General Principles IEC Risk Management IEC Physical Damage to Structures and Life Hazard IEC Electrical and Electronic Systems IEC International lightning protection standard 12
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection General Principles IEC International lightning protection standard Risk Physical damage and life hazard Physical damage and life hazard Electrical- and electronic systems Electrical- and electronic systems 13
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection By working through series of formulae the process allows the user to decide what protection is required. The actual risk (R) must be below the tolerable level (Rt). The ultimate protection may be the installation of a LPS system. Direct strike lightning arresters (LEMP) and surge arresters (SEMP). IEC Risk Management 14
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Introduction a)External LPS (air termination system, down contuctor‘s, earth termination system). b)An internal LPS (preventing dangerous sparking using equipotential bonding or separation distance (hence electrical insulation) between external LPS and internal metalwork. IEC Physical damage to structures and life hazard 15
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Scope: Provides information for design, installation, inspection, maintenance and testing of a LEMP protection system (LPM) for electrical and electronic systems within a structure able to reduce risk of permanent failure due to LEMP. IEC Electrical- and electronic systems within structures Basic protection measures in a LPM system – Earthing and Bonding – Magnetic shielding and line routing – Direct strike and surge protection 16
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Class I Protection Against Direct Lightning Currents (Lightning Current Arrester) (10/350 µs) Class I Protection Against Direct Lightning Currents (Lightning Current Arrester) (10/350 µs) IEC Performance Requirements of Surge Protective Devices for Low-Voltage Power Supply Systems IEC Performance Requirements of Surge Protective Devices for Low-Voltage Power Supply Systems Class III Protection Against Switching Overvoltages (Surge Arrester) (1.2/50 µs; 8/20 µs) Class III Protection Against Switching Overvoltages (Surge Arrester) (1.2/50 µs; 8/20 µs) Class II Protection Against Indirect Lightning Effects (Surge Arrester) (8/20 µs) Class II Protection Against Indirect Lightning Effects (Surge Arrester) (8/20 µs) Standardisation of Surge Protective Devices 17
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO External Lightning Protection System Air Termination System Downconductor Earth Termination System Lightning and Surge Protection 18
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection External Lightning Protection System air termination system down conductor earth termination system 19
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO EMC-orientated Lightning Protection Zones Concept Lightning and Surge Protection 20
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection air ventilation foundation earthing electrode steel reinforcement terminal device spatial shield M LPZ 0 A LEMP LEMP EMC-Orientated Lightning Protection Zones Concept LEMP LPZ 0 C air-termination system down- conductor system IT system LPZ 3 SEMP LPZ 2 LPZ 1 LPZ 0 B power supply system Lightning equipotential bonding Lightning current arrester (SPD Type 1) Local equipotential bonding Surge arrester (SPD Type 2, SPD Type 3) 21
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Internal Lightning Protection Lightning Equipotential Bonding Surge Protection Coordination Lightning and Surge Protection 22
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Internal Lightning Protection System Equipotential Bonding at the Boundary of LPZ Equipotential bonding for all metal parts and supply lines (e.g. metal pipes, electrical power or data lines) which are entering at the boundary of an internal LPZ shall be carried out at equipotential bonding bars which are installed as closely as possible to the point of entry. SPDs with suitable power carrying capacity for electrical power and data lines at the point of entry into the LPZ have always to be installed. Based on IEC
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection power supply M water gas heating LPZ 0 LPZ 1 Lightning Equipotential Bonding for incoming Lines cathodic protected tank pipe foundation earthing electrode lightning equipotential bonding external lightning protection system EBB 24
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning current arrester Lightning and Surge Protection 25
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Internal Lightning Protection Surge Protective Devices Surge protective devices for lightning equipotential bonding must be capable of safely controlling the partial lightning currents to be expected to flow through them. For this purpose, surge protective devices are chosen according to the requirements on site and installed in accordance with IEC Based on IEC The residual voltage at the surge protective device installed into the building, has to be coordinated with the impulse withstand capability of the installation. Surge protective devices Class I to be installed at the entry of the building, keep a significant part of the power of lightning currents away from the inside of the building. 26
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection What is a Lightning Current Arrester installed into a Power Supply System supposed to perform? Discharging of lightning currents several times without desctruction of the equipment. = Discharge capacity 100 kA (10/350 µs) Providing of a lower voltage protection level than the voltage strength of the downstream installation. Extinguishing or limiting of mains follow currents. Ensuring of the energy coordination to downstream surge protective devices and/or terminal equipment. 27
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection 1Test Impulse Curent for Lightning Current Arresters 2Test Impulse Current for Surge Arresters 20 kA 40 kA 60 kA 80 kA 100 kA I (kA) 200 µs350 µs600 µs800 µs1000 µs t (µs) 20 µs 50 kA / · 10 6 IEC / · 10 3 EN Wave form µs] i max. [kA] Q [As] W/R [J/ Standard 28
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection household appliances rated voltage withstand voltage 6 kV 4 kV 2.5 kV 1.5 kV SE 230/400 V sensitive devices M SDB terminal device voltage protection level 2.5kV 1.5 kV SPD Type1233 (SPD class) (I)(I)( II )( III )( IV ) Overvoltage Categories according to IEC Use of Surge Protective Devices (SPD) 29
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Surge Protection Lightning and Surge Protection 30
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection What is a Surge Arrester installed into a Power Supply System supposed to perform? Discharging of impulse currents (8/20 µs) several times without destroying the terminal equipment = 20 x nominal discharge capacity kA (8/20 µs) Voltage protection level lower than the electrical strength of the downstream terminal devices = Voltage protection level 1,500 V 31
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection household appliances rated voltage withstand voltage 6 kV 4 kV 2.5 kV 1.5 kV SE 230/400 V sensitive devices M SDB terminal device voltage protection level 2.5kV 1.5 kV SPD Type1233 (SPD class) (I)(I) (II) ( III )( IV ) Overvoltage Categories according to IEC Use of Surge Protective Devices (SPD) 32
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Coordination of SPDs Lightning and Surge Protection 33
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Energy Coordination of SPDs As soon as two or more SPDs are connected in series, the coordination of the SPDs and the equipment to be protected has to be checked. Energy coordination is achieved as soon as the ratio of energy for all impulse currents for each SPD is equal or less than corresponds to its power withstand capability. The power withstand capability can be determined – by an electrical test according to IEC , – from the technical data of the manufacturer of the SPDs Based on IEC Conclusion: The coordination of the SPDs can only be verified by the manufacturer! 34
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection residual interference impulse current 8/20 µs Energy Coordination of Surge Protective Devices (SPDs) DEHNguard ® S DEHNbloc ® MDEHNsafe input interference; lightning impulse current 10/350 µs terminal device ? varistor S 20 K / 400 V residual interference uncritical for terminal device 35
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Energy Coordination Overview: SPDs Type 1 230/400 V M SE Lightning current arrester Voltage protection level 4 kV DEHNbloc ® H Terminal Unit Red / Line Type 3 Red / Line Type 2 SDB Red / Line Type 2 Terminal Unit Red / Line Type 3 Coordinated lightning current arrester Voltage protection level 2.5 kV DEHNbloc ® M DEHNgap M Combined SPD Voltage protection level 1.5 kV DEHNventil ® M DEHNventil ® ZP Terminal Unit Red / Line Type 3 Surge Protection
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Examples of Lightning current and surge arrester Lightning and Surge Protection 37
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection DEHNventil ® M Characteristics Easy exchange of protection modules due to module releasing button Coding in base part and protection module = Safe application Remote signalling contact as floating changeover contact Leakage-current-free operating state and fault indication for all protective circuits Leakage-current-free protective circuit = Allows for use upstream of meter panels Capable of carrying lightning currents = For use in lightning protection level Plastic snap-in device with “parking position“ = Quick installation Low voltage protection level = Protection for terminal devices 38
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Coordinated lightning current arrester DEHNbloc M Type: DB M (FM) / Part No.: ( ) Coordinated, single-pole Type 1 lightning current arrester in accordance with EN with a modular device design RADAX-Flow technology Follow current extinguishing capability a.c.: up to 50 kA rms Maximum continuous operating voltage a.c. U C = 255 V a.c. Lightning impulse current (10/350 μs): 50 kA Voltage protection level 2.5 kV Directly coordinated to DEHNguard S 275 (FM) surge protective devices without additional cable length Encapsulated, non-exhausting creepage spark gap Optionally available with remote signalling contact for central monitoring units (floating changeover contact) Type of connection to earth TN/TT 230/400 V a.c. 39
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Red / Line DEHNguard ® M Family SPD Type 2 DEHNguard ® S (FM) DEHNguard ® M TNC 275 (FM) DEHNguard ® M TNS 275 (FM) DEHNguard ® M TT 275 (FM) DEHNguard ® M TN 275 (FM) DEHNguard ® M TT 2P 275 (FM) 40
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection DEHNguard M Family Characteristics 5 application-specific circuit types with and without remote signalling contact = 10 types of devices High-capacity varistor-based SPD - Nominal discharge current I n (20x) = 20 kA (8/20 µs) - Maximum discharge current I max (1x) = 40 kA (8/20 µs) - Low voltage protection level at I n = 1.25 kV Energy coordinated within the Red/Line product family Operating state and fault indication of all protective circuits, free of operating and leakage currents High safety due to Thermo Dynamic Control SPD controlling device 41
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Surge Protective Device Type 3 Use in Distribution Boards / Switchgear Cabinets SPS ProtectorDEHNrail modular (FM)DEHNrail M 4P
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Lightning and Surge Protection Low voltage protection level L to N and L/N to PE Characteristics of the DEHNrail M (DR M....) Series Discharge current up to 8 kA Different nominal voltages, from 24 V up to 230 V Maximum operating current: 25 A Operating state and fault indication, free of operating and leakage currents 43
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO Site visits to Botas Lightning and Surge Protection 1.
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