Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

9-Feb-14 1 Food Security assessment and the link with nutrition Module 9.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "9-Feb-14 1 Food Security assessment and the link with nutrition Module 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 9-Feb-14 1 Food Security assessment and the link with nutrition Module 9

2 9-Feb-14 2 Learning Objectives Be familiar with the concept of food security Understand basic principles of a food security assessment

3 Underlying causes Immediate causes Basic causes Formal and informal infrastructure/ political ideology/resources Inadequate food intake Poor Public Health Household food insecurity Disease Undernutrition Poor social and care practices Source: UNICEF conceptual framework

4 9-Feb-14 4 I am food secure because... ….Complete this sentence….

5 Definition of food security 9-Feb-14 5 A person, household or community, nation or region is food secure when all members at all times have physical and economic access to buy, produce, obtain or consume sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for a healthy and active life.

6 9-Feb-14 6 What does this mean in practice?

7 9-Feb-14 7 Three pillars of food security Availability of food food production, food imports, etc Access to food household food production and reserves, family income, solidarity mechanisms, barter, etc Utilization of food health situation (diarrhoea, malaria, AIDS), food storage and cooking practices, fuel, age related needs, etc

8 9-Feb-14 8 Three pillars of food security Availability of food food production, food imports, etc Access to food household food production and reserves, family income, solidarity mechanisms, barter, etc Utilization of food health situation (diarrhoea, malaria, AIDS), food storage and cooking practices, fuel, age related needs, etc

9 9-Feb-14 9 Link the following situations with availability/access/utilisation of food A severe drought can reduce a harvest or kill livestock. Pipeline break in food assistance High market prices of important food products Shortage of seeds or fertilisers Lack of nutritional knowledge causes people to have an inadequate diet or cause extensive vitamin loss during preparation. A broken bridge can hamper access to food or trade markets. Some strong cultural beliefs prevent people from eating certain healthy food products

10 9-Feb-14 10 Link the following situations with availability/access/utilisation of food High medical fees can reduce household budget for food. Unsafe drinking water can cause chronic diarrhoea and result in decreased absorption of nutrients. Conflict can ruin a social welfare system or reduce charity A locust infestation can diminish food stocks or ruin harvests High number of people unemployed

11 9-Feb-14 11

12 9-Feb-14 12 Categories Examples of indicators Food availability / general context Rainfall and expected effects on harvest Crop production (types of crops, yields, methods of production) Livestock holdings and status Land area cultivated and systems of land access Food access Livelihood strategies Income and food sources Essential expenditures Household food consumption patterns Household food stocks Productive household assets Market prices of key staples and productive assets (e.g. livestock) – Terms of trade Coping strategies Food utilisation Nutritional status Health status Water sources and sanitation facilities Feeding and caring practices Food consumption patterns

13 9-Feb-14 13 Categories Examples of indicators Food availability / general context Rainfall and expected effects on harvest Crop production (types of crops, yields, methods of production) Livestock holdings and status Land area cultivated and systems of land access Food access Livelihood strategies Income and food sources Essential expenditures Household food consumption patterns Household food stocks Productive household assets Market prices of key staples and productive assets (e.g. livestock) – Terms of trade Coping strategies Food utilisation Nutritional status Health status Water sources and sanitation facilities Feeding and caring practices Food consumption patterns *

14 Important elements in Food Security assessments Livelihood Vulnerability Coping strategies

15 9-Feb-14 15 A livelihood is a… way of making a living In the food security context it means people, their capabilities, their assets, their income and the activities they require in order to make a living. Food security can be an outcome of a livelihood oriented programme

16 9-Feb-14 16 Vulnerability A households vulnerability is determined by its ability to cope with: risks and shocks, such as drought, flooding, adverse government policies, conflict, and the HIV/AIDS crisis. The magnitude, duration and timing of the shock are important factors. In order to minimize the impact of such shocks and maintain adequate food access, households and communities employ coping strategies.

17 9-Feb-14 17 Coping strategies are activities people use as a means of getting through difficult times, brought on by events affecting their livelihood and way of living. When you assess Food Security you look at the different coping strategies of communities and households. Who is using what kind of coping strategy, and how well is it working? Are coping strategies always abnormal or damaging? Coping strategies

18 9-Feb-14 18 What is the difference between Programmes that address Food Security and Food Aid

19 9-Feb-14 19 Food security programmes and food aid Food security Food aid

20 9-Feb-14 20 Why would information on Food Security be important when you work in nutrition?

21 9-Feb-14 21 Importance of Food Security Assessment Results might be able to -Explain the current nutrition situation -Predict worsening or improvement of nutrition situation -Direct you to the most effective intervention to address malnutrition

22 9-Feb-14 22 Elements of emergency food security assessment and analysis The information should indicate whether there is a possible link between the food security situation and current malnutrition or whether there is a risk of malnutrition unless some food security and livelihoods intervention is implemented

23 Underlying causes Immediate causes Basic causes Formal and informal infrastructure/ political ideology/resources Inadequate food intake Poor Public Health Household food insecurity Disease Undernutrition Poor social and care practices Source: UNICEF conceptual framework

24 9-Feb-14 24 Example: What has the rise in unemployment in an area to do with nutrition

25 9-Feb-14 25 Food security assessments Might be conducted: as part of early warning and surveillance systems, for emergency preparedness or monitoring; to identify the main constraints that prevent households from meeting their food and other needs; and as part of studies to understand the causes of malnutrition. (These situations are not mutually exclusive and may therefore overlap)

26 9-Feb-14 26 Food security assessments Most emergency food security assessments have one or more of these objectives: Estimation of the severity of food insecurity Projection of future food insecurity Identification of groups that are more affected by or vulnerable to food insecurity Identification of appropriate interventions to improve households access to food

27 9-Feb-14 27 Depending on objectives, some of following questions need to be answered How do people make their living? How do people meet their food needs? What resources do they have? Who accesses these resources over time? How does a normal situation compare to a crisis? Can people manage without assistance from the Government/NGOs/United Nations/Red Cross/Crescent? If not, how can the humanitarian community support coping strategies?

28 9-Feb-14 28 Steps in Food Security Assessment and Reporting

29 9-Feb-14 29 There is no standard method for assessing food security in emergencies and different agencies have developed approaches that suit their individual needs. The various approaches to food security assessment have some similarities and some differences. While there is no single best way to conduct food security assessments in emergencies, certain elements from the approaches used by different agencies can be used.

30 9-Feb-14 30 There are many different approaches to food security assessments and analysis in emergencies. They have a lot in common. Some examples: Name of assessment approachAgency Global information and early warning system (GIEWS) FAO Famine early warning system (FEWS)USAID Emergency Food Security AssessmentWFP Integrated phase classificationMulti-agency Household economy approachFEG, SCUK Economic security assessmentICRC Household livelihood securityCARE Sustainable Livelihoods FrameworkOXFAM Nutrition causal analysis approachAAH Food and nutritional assessmentMSF Livelihood Assessment ToolkitFAO / ILO

31 9-Feb-14 31 Food security assessment Type of index Name Agency Dietary intake Individual dietary diversity score FANTA/FAO Household dietary diversity score FANTA/FAO Food consumption scoreWFP Cornell-Radimer hunger scaleCornell University Household food insecurity access scale FANTA Coping strategiesCoping strategies indexCARE, WFP Various tools are available to measure e.g.dietary intake, coping strategies (see HTP Module 9)

32 9-Feb-14 32 In all cases, any attempt should be made to combine nutrition assessment with food security information, as the first one is likely to be explained, at least partially, by the second. *

33 Key messages Food security means access by all people, at all times, to sufficient, safe and nutritious food for a healthy and active life. Food insecurity is just one of the underlying causes of undernutrition. Access to food is often disrupted during emergencies. It is therefore vital to understand how households access food to plan appropriate interventions to protect food security and ultimately nutritional status. Food security assessments might be conducted: (i) as part of early warning and surveillance systems, for emergency preparedness or monitoring; (ii) to identify the main constraints that prevent households from meeting their food and other needs ; and (iii) as part of studies to understand the causes of malnutrition. Food security cannot be measured through a single indicator so multiple measures have to be used and analysed together. There is no standard method for assessing food security in emergencies. But certain elements from the approaches used by different agencies can be taken to form a hybrid suitable for a particular working context, as long as technical and analytical rigour is maintained. Including nutrition information in a food security assessment (and vice versa) improves the quality of the results and helps to ensure an appropriate response.


Download ppt "9-Feb-14 1 Food Security assessment and the link with nutrition Module 9."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google