Presentation on theme: "9-Feb-141 1 Save lives and save (or restore) livelihoods….. Livelihoods Interventions Module 16."— Presentation transcript:
9-Feb Save lives and save (or restore) livelihoods….. Livelihoods Interventions Module 16
9-Feb-142 Learning objectives Be familiar with the different options of livelihood interventions Understand their main objectives Be aware of advantages, disadvantages and criteria for implementation of livelihood interventions Understand the various contexts for livelihood interventions
4 Understanding livelihoods is critical to understanding nutrition in emergencies as it is through livelihoods that people obtain food and income security.
6 Livelihoods and emergency programming In emergencies, livelihood support programmes include any intervention that protects peoples capabilities and assets, and supports livelihood activities These programmes can be undertaken to prevent or mitigate* the impact of a crisis or in response to a crisis
9-Feb-147 Would these fishermen benefit more from food aid or support to repair their boat? Impact of a tsunami
9-Feb Would these farmers benefit more from food assistance or logistic support to get their produce to markets?
9-Feb-149 Underlying causes Immediate causes Basic causes Formal and informal infrastructure/ political ideology/resources Inadequate food intake Poor Public Health Household food insecurity Disease Undernutrition Poor social and care practices Source: UNICEF conceptual framework
9-Feb-1410 Planning and Designing Interventions that Support Livelihoods in emergencies Interventions to support livelihoods can have 3 objectives: – Livelihood Provision, the supply of basic immediate needs – Livelihood Protection, preventing the sale of assets or the recovery of lost assets – Livelihood Promotion, strengthening institutions, skills and advocating for policy change that supports livelihoods
9-Feb-1411 Interventions can be divided into 4 main groups: – (Food assistance (GFD)) – Income and employment (Food for work, Cash for work, Cash grants, micro-finance, income generating activities) – Production support (crop production support, livestock support, fishing support) – Market support (commodity vouchers, cash vouchers, monetization and subsidized sales, market infrastructure and access, de-stocking)
9-Feb-1412 Hand-out Overview of different livelihood support interventions in emergencies and criteria/condition for decision-making on interventions to address food crises
9-Feb-1413 Interventions can be divided into 4 main groups: – (Food assistance (GFD)) – Income and employment (Food for work, Cash for work, Cash grants, micro-finance, income generating activities) – Production support (crop production support, livestock support, fishing support) – Market support (commodity vouchers, cash vouchers, monetization and subsidized sales, market infrastructure and access, de-stocking)
9-Feb-1414 Implementing interventions to support Livelihoods: Food assistance interventions Food assistance is organized to: – Maintain or improve nutritional status, hence enabling a healthy active life – Reduce the need for people to sell off assets to obtain food – Release income that would otherwise have been spent on food – Enable the payment of credit or debt i.e. supports important coping strategies Some risks are to be considered, such as the impact on market, people dependency, competition with other aid interventions, etc.
9-Feb-1415 Implementing Interventions to support Livelihoods: I ncome & Employment Cash approaches are increasingly being used -when sufficient food (or other goods) is available and accessible on markets -when no risk of increasing inflation exists; and -when conditions are respected for safe and effective cash transfer. Types of interventions are cash grants, cash vouchers, cash for work.
9-Feb-1416 Implementing Interventions to support Livelihoods: Market support The aim of market support programmes in emergencies is generally to ensure that peoples access to basic goods is maintained. Market support interventions can take many forms: – cash and voucher programmes – programmes that support market infrastructure, the maintenance of food prices in markets (e.g. through the provision of subsidized foods) and the producers access to markets locally, nationally and internationally. Such programmes require adequate market analysis.
9-Feb-1417 Implementing Interventions to support Livelihoods: P roduction support It can take many forms such as support of livestock, crop production and fishing interventions The main types of interventions are: – Seeds and Tools – Seeds fair – Livestock programmes – Livestock marketing support – De-stocking – Fodder distribution – Veterinary and animal health support – Re-stocking
9-Feb-1418 How would you monitor and evaluate Livelihoods Interventions? And….. Is it different from other interventions?
9-Feb-1419 How to decide which intervention is appropriate? Selection based on the need, the context, the advantages and disadvantages of each intervention. Example: Type of intervention Criteria/condition Common emergency context AdvantagesDisadvantages Seeds and tools Food insecurity due to reduction or loss in crop production Affected households lacking seeds and tools Lack of seeds/tools limits production Local knowledge available on the use Sufficient food accessible (otherwise seeds might be eaten) Recovery stage or protracted emergencies (Note: but planning needs to start during emergency!!!!) Re-establishes crop production Strengthens agricultural systems in longer term Increases self- sufficiency Requires knowledge of local seeds and agriculture. Imported seeds may not be used.
9-Feb-1420 Monitoring and evaluation of livelihoods interventions Key questions for monitoring process (how was the transfer delivered?) Did the intended recipients receive the seeds? Did the recipients receive the correct amounts of seeds Was the distribution done on time? Were the recipients and other stakeholders satisfied with the process and method of implementation? What other assistance are recipients receiving? Types of recipient? Key questions for monitoring impact (what change has there been for the recipient?) What was the average yield of the seed distributed? How have sources of food and income changed? How have coping strategies changed? How much has income and expenditure changed since the seed distribution programme? Have there been any changes in consumption patterns? Would recipients have preferred another form of assistance?
9-Feb-1421 Are all livelihood interventions appropriate for each context? For example: - in relief? - in pro-tracted crisis? - as part of disaster preparedness? - in rehabilitation/early recovery phase?
9-Feb-1422 Issues and challenges for livelihoods programming in emergencies (1) Examples of different interventions dependent on the context (disaster management cycle) ReliefRehabilitationDevelopment Mitigation/pre paredness Income generation and markets Asset/income transfers or expenditure reduction; Food aid; Cash grants; vouchers; Cash-for-work; Food-for-work; Seed distribution Vouchers and fairs; Cash-for-work; Food-for-work; Asset recovery (seeds and tools, livestock, equipment); Microfinance Microfinance; Training in business management; Organizing small-scale producers; Lobbying for a more supportive market environment; Social welfare programmes; Diversification opportunities Contingency stocks; Linking social welfare to emergency response; Insurance to, e.g., cereal/fodder banks; Early warning systems
9-Feb-1423 Working in conflict makes it very necessary for livelihood interventions to be linked with protection ones. Mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in livelihood interventions because of the deep prolonged impact of the disease on livelihoods. Can livelihood interventions improve nutrition? * Issues and challenges for livelihoods programming in emergencies (2)
9-Feb-1424 Can livelihood interventions improve nutrition? Improvement of nutritional status cannot necessarily be attributed to the livelihood intervention. Because there is a complex pathway between that intervention and nutritional status (with many factors that can change the nutritional status) But……at best there might be a plausible causal association, e.g. it might be possible that a livelihood intervention leads to increased income leading to improved consumption patterns. As long indicators on each level are not measured, it will be difficult to defend this causal relationship. BUT…..livelihood interventions do not need to have nutritional objectives to be still useful and supportive to families/communities in emergencies.
9-Feb-1425 Many opportunities, often not used Your experiences?
9-Feb-1426 Understanding livelihoods is critical to understanding how an emergency will affect nutrition. Organisations are increasingly programming to support livelihoods during emergencies. A wide variety of interventions can be implemented in support of livelihoods during emergencies including: – Food aid (general food distribution, food for work) – Income and employment (cash distribution, cash for work, micro- finance) – Market support (vouchers, monetization and de-stocking) – Production support (agricultural, livestock and fishing) The choice of the most appropriate livelihood intervention depends on the pros and cons, the context (relief, rehabilitation, development. mitigation/preparedness), preferences of the communities, etc. Key messages