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Trinity Washington University School of Professional Studies PARAPHRASING and SUMMARIZING From a presentation developed by Dr. Angela Lanier of the College.

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Presentation on theme: "Trinity Washington University School of Professional Studies PARAPHRASING and SUMMARIZING From a presentation developed by Dr. Angela Lanier of the College."— Presentation transcript:

1 Trinity Washington University School of Professional Studies PARAPHRASING and SUMMARIZING From a presentation developed by Dr. Angela Lanier of the College of Arts & Sciences

2 A paraphrase is... Your version of someone else’s ideas presented in a new form. A legitimate way to borrow from a source, as long as you document the source. A more detailed restatement than a summary (Source:

3 Paraphrasing is a valuable skill It is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage. It helps you control the temptation to quote too much. The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original. If done correctly and the source is documented, you avoid plagiarism. (Source:

4 Make sure that your paraphrase Uses different language Keeps the meaning of the original text Uses a different sentence structure Includes all important information (NOTE: A paraphrase can be longer than, shorter than, or the same length as the original passage)

5 Paraphrasing Tips Identify the subject and predicate of the sentence. (What is this statement about? What is the subject doing? OR What is being said about the statement?) To change sentence structure: separate ideas from one sentence into two or more sentences OR change the order of ideas in the sentence Replace key word with synonym, definition or another form of the word (e.g. change a noun to its verb form)

6 What NOT to do when paraphrasing Do not replace the original text word-for- word with synonyms Do not replace words with terms that are unfamiliar to you Do not force yourself to replace words that are so common that there is not appropriate replacement

7 Original Statement: Most of us have been taught to read for ideas. Based on rules, is this a good paraphrase? Reading to identify ideas has been the focus of reading instruction for the majority of students.

8 Original Statement: Most of us have been taught to read for ideas. Based on rules, is this a good paraphrase? Reading to identify ideas has been a part of reading instruction for the majority of students.

9 Original Statement: It is easy to underline so much that your notations are meaningless. Based on rules, is this a good paraphrase? Underlining so much that your notations are meaningless is easy to do.

10 Original Statement: It is easy to underline so much that your notations are meaningless. Based on rules, is this a good paraphrase? Underlining so much that your notations are meaningless is easy to do.

11 Original Statement: One effective reading strategy is to write down ideas about the text in the margins of the text. Based on rules, is this a good paraphrase? Writing marginal notes in response to the text is a good way to manage a reading assignment.

12 Original Statement: One effective reading strategy is to write down ideas about the text in the margins of the text. Based on rules, is this a good paraphrase? Writing marginal notes in response to the text is a good way to manage a reading assignment.

13 Original Statement: Remember that you are not reading for content alone but also to understand a writer’s methods. Based on rules, is this a good paraphrase? Keep in mind that you are not reading for substance only but additionally to comprehend the author's procedures.

14 Original Statement: Remember that you are not reading for content alone but also to understand a writer’s methods. Based on rules, is this a good paraphrase? Keep in mind that you are not reading for substance only but additionally to comprehend the author's procedures.

15 A summary is… A statement in your into your own words of the main point(s) of a piece of writing. Is significantly shorter than the original text and take a broad overview of the source material. (Source:

16 Summary Strategies Take summary notes by annotating the text In your summary notes, write out the author’s complete thesis Remain objective. A summary is not an evaluation or critique. Keep the summary short.

17 Original Statement: Women’s liberation has struck India late and hard. In a country where divorce occurs in one out of a million marriages (if that), where virginity is still highly prized in a prospective bride, where the concept of “damaged goods,” as far as women are concerned, still plays a determining role in a man’s choice, the assertion of female autonomy and independence is both an incidental irritation in male consciousness as well as a real and frightening challenge to the so-called emancipated urban women.

18 Based on rules, is this a good summary? Sasthi Brata believes that in India, women’s liberation has come late. Here, divorce happens in one out of a million marriages and virginity is prized highly in a bride-to-be. Females, even urban women, are not autonomous or independent as ridiculous and backward as this.

19 Based on rules, is this a good summary? As Sasthi Brata reports, women’s liberation has only recently come to India. Stigmatization of divorced women, traditional views on the importance of a woman’s virginity, and a general absence of independence or self-sufficiency for women have hindered the arrival of total liberation for females. Source: Anderson, M. (2008). Keys to successful writing. New York, NY Pearson Longman


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