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Using Questioning Strategies to Meet Common Core ELA Standards for Reading Informational Texts Vivian Bernstein Author, Consultant

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Presentation on theme: "Using Questioning Strategies to Meet Common Core ELA Standards for Reading Informational Texts Vivian Bernstein Author, Consultant"— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Questioning Strategies to Meet Common Core ELA Standards for Reading Informational Texts Vivian Bernstein Author, Consultant

2 Reading Research on Comprehension 1.“Less than half of all fourth graders are proficient or advanced readers.” (National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2011) 2.“Applying a variety of questioning strategies promotes comprehension.” (National Reading Panel, 2000) 3.“Good readers ask questions, predict, self monitor, and summarize.” (National Reading Panel, 2000) 4.“Self-questioning strategies improve comprehension.” (Carlisle, J. and Rice, M., 2002)

3 5.“Explicit vocabulary instruction improves comprehension with all students.” (Carlo, M.S., August, D., McLaughlin, B. etc. 2004) 6.“Lessons that include more questions by teachers produce greater achievement gains.” (Dillon, J.T., 1984) 7.“Summarizing improves recall and comprehension.” (Carlisle, J. and Rice, M., 2002) 8.“Most readers in the 75th percentile read ‘for fun’ almost daily.” (N.A.E.P., 2011) Reading Comprehension Research (cont.)

4 Common Core State Standards: Changing Reading Instruction Greater Emphasis on Informational Texts  Build an information base  Informational texts promote success in college and careers  Read complex texts Amount of Informational Reading  Grade 4:50%  Grade 8:55%  Grade 12: 70%

5 1.Build background knowledge 2.Build academic and domain specific vocabulary 3.Understand author’s point of view 4.Apply evidence and examples to support points of view 5.Integrate research from several sources 6.Comprehend complex texts CCSS for Reading Informational Texts

6 Strategy 1. Start with Essential Questions 1.Focus on big ideas of a unit 2.More than one correct answer 3.Set a purpose for learning 4.Contain easy to understand phrasing 5.Promote critical thinking 6.Apply prior knowledge 7.Create a final project

7 Examples of Essential Questions 1.How did the California Gold Rush change the United States? 2.Which was the best way to travel to California in 1849? 3.Why do people make dangerous journeys? 4.How does the Sun affect life on Earth? 5.How do living things survive?

8 Strategy 2: Apply Self-Questioning Strategies Self-Questioning: What Do I Know? Main Topic: California Gold Rush Topics San Francisco Forty-Niners California James Marshall John Sutter I know this topic and I can talk about it. I know something about this topic but I cannot explain it. I do not know anything about the topic.

9 Applying CCSS: Self-Questioning the Text Structure What kind of informational text am I reading ?  Narrative  Cause and effect  Problem-solution  Chronology  Comparisons  Author’s point of view

10 Self-Questioning Prepare to Read a Textbook Chapter 1.Survey entire chapter 2.Vocabulary 3.Subheading questions 4.Read and answer questions 5.End-of-Chapter questions

11 Self-Questioning Strategies for Before, During, and After Reading Before Reading  What do I know about ______?  What do I predict?  What do I expect to learn? During Reading  Do I understand what I’m reading?  What do I predict will happen next?  What was the main idea of the section? After Reading  What did I learn?  What else do I want to know?  What if ____?  Summarize the lesson.

12 Self-Questioning as You Read What is the Main Idea? Main Idea Thousands of people rushed to California in  Detail: Main Idea: Thousands of people rushed to California in 1849.

13 Self-Questioning to Make Inferences What did I learn from the book? There were no railroads across the United States. There were no paved roads west of the Mississippi. What do I already know? California was thousands of miles from the eastern coast. What can I infer? Traveling to California would take a long time. The trip would be difficult.

14 Strategy 3. Use Questioning Techniques to Build Vocabulary Select 10 Tier 2 Vocabulary Words for a Unit Topic: The California Gold Rush New Vocabulary 1.Gold Rush 2.Forty-Niners 3.territory 4.culture 5.emigrants 6.shortages 7.scarcity 8.inflation 9.prospectors 10.epidemics

15 Vocabulary Study Aid inflation definition  What is inflation?  What causes inflation?  Why did it happen in 1849?

16 Applying CCSS: Questioning Activities to Build Vocabulary 1.Why did people become Forty-Niners? 2.Would you rather have a cholera shot or get sick during an epidemic? 3.Why did people become emigrants? 4.What is an example of a culture? 5.True or False: Pollution can cause a scarcity of fresh water.

17 Strategy 4. Use Questioning Techniques to Summarize Information Why is Summarizing Important?  Promotes long-term recall  Helps students focus on main ideas and important details  Helps students distinguish relevant and irrelevant information

18 Self-Questioning to Summarize a Section 1.What are one or two main ideas? 2.What are important supporting facts? 3.What information is irrelevant? Remember! Students cannot summarize if they cannot identify main ideas.

19 Writing the Summary Step 2: Find the main idea, supporting facts, and irrelevant facts. Step 3: Write a one paragraph summary using the graphic organizer. Important Facts  Prospectors needed stronger pants  Levi used rivets and denim to make strong pants Irrelevant Facts  Born in Germany  Family had 7 children Main Idea Levi Strauss became rich by making jeans for miners.

20 Strategy 5. Teach Students to Work with Many Kinds of Questions:  Who discovered gold?  What jobs did women do?  When did California become a state?  Where was gold discovered?  How did people travel?  Why was life difficult for miners? Apply CCSS: Build Recall

21 CCSS: Ask Questions to Understand Text Features Types of text features:  Maps  Charts  Graphs  Diagrams  Primary Sources  Time lines

22 Applying CCSS: Questions for Higher-Level Thinking Use questions to help students think beyond the content of the text.  What were some other ways people might get rich during the Gold Rush?  I wonder why it was so difficult to travel to California?  Interpret the facts. What conclusions can be drawn?  What evidence supports your point of view?

23 Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy California Gold Rush 1.Knowledge: What are three facts about the California before the Gold Rush? 2.Comprehension: How did emigrants travel to California? 3.Application: Sequence five events that happened after gold was discovered. 4.Analysis: Compare and contrast the overland journey with the voyages by sea. 5.Synthesis: Plan a trip to California in What supplies would you pack in your covered wagon? 6.Evaluation: How did the 1849 Gold Rush change the United States?

24 “Wait Time” Promotes Success Students need time to think! Average wait time is only one second. Research: Increasing wait time beyond three seconds increases achievement. Struggling students greatly benefit from more wait time.

25 Learn More About the Gold Rush      Friedman, Mel. The California Gold Rush.  Murphy, Claire Rudolph. Children of the Gold Rush.  Murphy, Claire Rudolph. Gold Rush Women.  Raum, Elizabeth. The California Gold Rush: An Interactive History Adventure.  Roop, Peter. California Gold Rush.  Stein, Conrad. The California Gold Rush.

26 Three-book program for grades 3, 4, and 5 Develops reading skills and strategies for science and social studies reading Builds content area vocabulary and background knowledge Supports the Common Core State Standards by Vivian Bernstein

27 Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., and Kuncan, L. (2002) Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. Guildford Press. Carlisle, J. F., and Rice, M. S. (2002) Improving Reading Comprehension: Research-Based Principles and Practices. York Press. Carlo, M. S., August, D., McLaughlin, B., Snow, C. E., Dressler, C., Lippman, D. N., Lively, T. J. & White, C. E. (2004) “Closing the Gap: Addressing the Vocabulary Needs of English Language Learners in Bilingual and Mainstream Classrooms”. Reading Research Quarterly, 39, Chall, J. S., and Dale, E. (1995) Readability Revisited: The New Dale-Chall Readability Formula. Brookline Books. Dillon, J.T. (1984) “Research on Questioning and Discussion”. Educational Leadership 42: Duke, N., and Pearson, P. D. (2002) Effective Practices for Developing Reading Comprehension. Farstrup, A., and Samuels, J. What Research Has to Say About Reading Instruction. (pp ). International Reading Association. Irvin, J. L., Lunstrum, J. P., Lynch-Brown, C., & Shepard, M. F. (1996). Enhancing Social Studies Through Literacy Strategies. (p.5) Washington, D. C. NCIS. Kissner, E. (2006) Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Retelling. Heinemann. Lewin, L. (2006) Reading Response That Really Matters. New York: Scholastic. Bibliography

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