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ExC-ELL 1 EVIDENCE-BASED INSTRUCTION FOR ELS IN BILINGUAL SETTINGS Margarita Calderón, Ph.D. Professor Emerita, Johns Hopkins University Argelia Carreón.

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Presentation on theme: "ExC-ELL 1 EVIDENCE-BASED INSTRUCTION FOR ELS IN BILINGUAL SETTINGS Margarita Calderón, Ph.D. Professor Emerita, Johns Hopkins University Argelia Carreón."— Presentation transcript:

1 ExC-ELL 1 EVIDENCE-BASED INSTRUCTION FOR ELS IN BILINGUAL SETTINGS Margarita Calderón, Ph.D. Professor Emerita, Johns Hopkins University Argelia Carreón María Trejo Margarita Calderón & Associates Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

2 ExC-ELL 2 AGENDA Introduction, on-going research, and program structures for ELs. Examples of instructional strategies that ensure academic language, close reading, and writing. Implications for all subjects and classrooms. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

3 ExC-ELL 3 Clock Buddies Draw a clock on your paper and indicate the hours: 12, 3, 6, 9. Find one partner for each hour. Write your name on their clock and they write their name on yours  3 6

4 ExC-ELL 4 Results From the Five-year Studies: IES comparison study of K-4 th dual language (DL), transitional bilingual (TB), and sheltered English instruction/structured English immersion (SEI). NIH seven-year study on transfer of skills. Carnegie Corporation of New York study in 6 th - 12 th general education teachers, ESL, SEI, SIFE, and bilingual teachers. New study in NYC on RTI and LT-ELs. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

5 ExC-ELL 5 Why is Vocabulary Important? Command of a large vocabulary frequently sets high-achieving students apart from less successful ones (Montgomery, 2000). The average 6-year-old has a vocabulary of approximately 8000 words, and learns more per year (Senechal & Cornell, 1993). Vocabulary in kindergarten and first grade is a significant predictor of reading comprehension in the middle and secondary grades (Cunningham, 2005; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997) or reading difficulties (Chall & Dale, 1995; Denton et al. 2011). Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

6 ExC-ELL 6 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. LT-ELs -- Long-Term ELLs (60-85%) ____ Struggling Readers/Reluctant Readers ____ R-ELs -- Reclassified ELLs ____ M-ELs -- Migrant ELLs ____ SIFE -- Students with Interrupted Formal Education ____ SE-ELs -- Special Education ELLs ____ HSN -- Highly Schooled Newcomers ____ ADD % TO EACH Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

7 ExC-ELL 7 THINK ABOUT IT 1.How many words are your LT-ELs learning per year? 2.How about the struggling learners? 3.How about the highly- schooled newcomers? 4.SIFE? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

8 ExC-ELL 8 Key: Teach Vocabulary Before, During & After Students Read Vocabulary knowledge correlates with reading comprehension. Reading comprehension correlates with procedural and content knowledge. Content knowledge correlates with academic success. Comprehension depends on knowing between 90% and 95% of the words in text. Knowing words means explicit instruction not just exposure. Students need 12 production opportunities to own a word. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

9 ExC-ELL 9 Why is Content Area Literacy Important for ELLs? Without reading instruction on content area literacy: SURFACE COMPREHENSION: Literal comprehension; students read on their own and answer questions; questions are low-level. With reading instruction integrated into content areas: DEEP COMPREHENSION: Critical comprehension; students learn new vocabulary continuously; associate new readings with prior knowledge; add new knowledge, discuss ideas, interpret facts and information, and apply critical thinking skills to text. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

10 ExC-ELL 10 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. CCSS -VOCABULARY PREVALENT IN COMPLEX TEXTS Some students will have smaller tier 1, 2. 3 vocabularies when they enter the classroom. Instruction must address this vocabulary gap early and aggressively. Provide more instruction for students with weaker vocabularies rather than offering them fewer words. Focus on tier 2 instruction to help students access grade level texts.

11 ExC-ELL 11 ORACY/RICH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Oracy development occurs when teachers Provide ELs with multiple opportunities to interact with peers about a text or what they are writing (Eads & Wells, 1989; Slavin & Calderón, 2010; Fisher et al. 2012) Carefully plan, model, provide a psychological safety net, and scaffold in a way that makes ELs feel comfortable expressing their “English in progress” (Calderón 2011) Create a context of the classroom that encourages voicing of understandings and misunderstandings, thereby, enriching students’ cognitive and linguistic repertoires (Fisher et al. 2012)

12 ExC-ELL 12 Semantic Awareness Semantic Awareness is a cognitive, metacognitive, affective, and linguistic stance toward words that the whole school should adopt. It is a mindset that word consciousness involves motivating and showing students how important it is to be learning words for every subject area. Semantic awareness helps students become more skillful and precise in word usage at many levels of complexity and sophistication. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

13 ExC-ELL 13 1.SUMMARIZE: THE MESSAGES FROM WHAT HAS BEEN PRESENTED SO FAR. 2. DISCUSS: WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS SO FAR FOR YOUR CLASSROOM AND YOUR SCHOOL? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

14 ExC-ELL 14 Initially Following that Additionally Finally Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

15 ExC-ELL 15 WHICH WORDS TO SELECT TO TEACH IN ALL SUBJECT AREAS IN L1 & L2? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

16 ExC-ELL 16 Review of Academic Language For formal discourse between teacher-student and student-student interaction around standards/goals. For text comprehension. For words you want to see in their formal writing. For success in the new tests. For academic and economic status. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

17 ExC-ELL 17 Tier 2 & 3 —Subcategories 1.Polysemous words 2.Words for specificity 3.Sophisticated words 4.Connectors, transition words 5.Phrasal clusters 6.Information processing words 7.Cognates & false cognates when possible 8.Sentence & question starters & frames 9.Idioms, metaphors, similes, puns

18 ExC-ELL 18 TIER 3 – CONTENT SPECIFIC Square rootPhotosynthesisGovernment RectangleGermBylaws Radical numbers AtomBailout CircumferenceMatterCongressional Pi squareOsmosisCapital Power Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

19 ExC-ELL 19 Polysemous words (homonyms or homographs) across academic content areas: solution table divide prime round trunk state power cell right radical leg left light fall check court hand long pin rest roll sense Tier 2—Subcategories

20 ExC-ELL 20 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Some Examples of Transition Words & Connectors for: Cause & Effect -- because, due to, as a result, since, for this reason, therefore, in order to, so that, thus… Contrast -- or, but, although, however, in contrast, nevertheless, on the other hand, while … Addition or comparison -- and, also, as well as, in addition, likewise, moreover, by the way … Giving examples -- for example, for instance, in particular, such as … TIER 2 – WORDS THAT NEST CONTENT WORDS AND CONCEPTS Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

21 ExC-ELL 21 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. vary, underlying, albeit, solely, state, successive, denote, crucial, oddly, analogous, compiled, oddly, whereby, notwithstanding, forthcoming, coincide, widespread, implicit… These Await Your Students in 6 th & 7 th Grade Tests! Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

22 ExC-ELL 22 TIER 2 – PHRASAL CLUSTERS AND IDIOMS Run off Run away Break a leg Once in a while Complete sentence Long noun phrases Relatively easier Stored Energy Stimulus package Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

23 ExC-ELL 23 TIER 2 – SOPHISTICATED WORDS FOR SPECIFICITY FOR THE WORD “TALK” Whisper Argue Specify Announce Request Reveal Remark Declare Describe Pontificate Discuss Proclaim Shout Scream Converse Communicate Verbalize Debate Articulate Question Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

24 ExC-ELL 24 IDIOMS WITH: talk Small talk Sweet talk Talk shop Talk big Talk sense Talk down Talk back Talk over Speak up Pep talk Talk your ear off Talk in circles Talk in riddles Talk a mile a minute Dance around a topic Talking to a brick wall Talk of the town Spit it out Talking point Talk your way out of it

25 ExC-ELL 25 CHECK THIS OUT! Bad check Bed check Check-in Check-out Check off Check up on Cross-check Double check Spellcheck Checkbook Paycheck Checkstub Blank check Rubber check Rain check Spot check Checklist Checkmate

26 ExC-ELL 26 Spanish to English: ¡Fácil! Fácil Facile Facilitate Facilitator Facilitation Edificio Edifice Edify Edification

27 ExC-ELL 27 TIER 2 - SENTENCE STARTERS Summarizing. Students create a new oral text that stands for an existing text. The summary contains the important information or big ideas. +This story tells about a... +This section is about the... +One important fact here is that... Determining important information. Students tell the most important idea in a section of text, distinguishing it from details that tell more about it. +The main idea is... +The key details that support that are... +The purpose of this text is to... Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

28 ExC-ELL 28 TIER 2 - QUESTION STARTERS Can you help me _____? I don't understand _____. Where is/are _____? How do I _____? May I ask a question? How much time do we have for _____? Where do I _____? Would you please repeat that? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

29 ExC-ELL 29 Tier 1 Words for ELs Tier 1 Problem Words Examples SpellingTough, toothache, phrase, highlight, because Pronunciation or confusion with homophones Weather/whether, sum/some, blue/blew, whole/hole, access/exes/axis, sell/cell, ship/chip Background knowledge Lawnmower, blender, parka, skyscraper False cognatesExit, character, embarrassed, success Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

30 ExC-ELL 30 Summarize and Memorize the Tiers

31 ExC-ELL 31 Your Turn!  Select 3 words for each tier - (Tier 1, 2, 3) from the text slide.

32 ExC-ELL 32 Summary of Vocabulary Tiers 1, 2, 3 For ELLs TIER 1 -- Basic words ELLs need to communicate, read, and write. Those that should be taught. TIER 2 -- Information processing words that nest Tier 3 words in long sentences, polysemous words, transition words, connectors; more sophisticated words for rich discussions and specificity in descriptions. TIER 3 -- Subject-specific words that label content discipline concepts, subjects, and topics. Infrequently used academic words. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

33 ExC-ELL 33 Criteria for Selecting Words to Teach  It is critically important to the discipline.  It is critically important to this unit.  It is important to the understanding of the concept.  It is not critical but useful for ELLs.  It is not useful at this time.

34 ExC-ELL 34 The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies September 17, 2013 Lead author Dr. Levi Tillemann, Special Advisor for Policy and International Affairs Contributors Fredric Beck, DOE Wind Technology Program Dr. James Brodrick, DOE Solid-State Lighting Program Dr. Austin Brown, DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory David Feldman, DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tien Nguyen, DOE Fuel Cells Technology Office Jacob Ward, DOE Vehicles Technology Program FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY. Selected sections of the article are used for illustration purposes only. The complete article may be accessed at: %20The%20Future%20Arrives%20for%20Four%20Clean%20Energy%20Technologies.pdfhttp://www.doe.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/09/f2/Revolution%20Now%20-- %20The%20Future%20Arrives%20for%20Four%20Clean%20Energy%20Technologies.pdf. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Revolution Now

35 ExC-ELL 35 For decades, America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. But even as costs fell and technology matured, a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. Critics often said a clean energy future would “always be five years away.” This report focuses on four technology revolutions that are here today. In the last five years they have achieved dramatic reductions in cost and this has been accompanied by a surge in consumer, industrial and commercial deployment. Although these four technologies still represent a small percentage of their total market (e.g. electricity, cars and lighting), they are growing rapidly. Gaining Force 1

36 ExC-ELL 36 Identify & Classify Words Type of WordsTier 3Tier 2Tier 1 Polysemous Phrases (bundled up words, idioms) Cognates Connectors & transition Homophones Other:

37 ExC-ELL 37 HOW TO TEACH WORDS IN ALL SUBJECT AREAS IN L1 AND L2? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

38 ExC-ELL 38 Pre-teaching Vocabulary Not passive role – don’t ask them to look up in dictionary or define in the context of a sentence or copy from the board or to listen to the word and meaning only. Active role – ask them to use the word with peers, apply to real-life experiences, connect with meaning used in the text. Use of the word – in reading comprehension and discussion, and in oral and written summaries.

39 ExC-ELL 39 Pre-teaching Vocabulary Try to keep teacher talk to 1 minute for the 7 steps; students’ practice to 1 minute (2 - 3 minutes per word). 100% student participation!!! DO NOT ask them to write, draw, guess what it means, or spend too much time giving examples that might draw students away from the real meaning. Writing and further depth of word meaning and practice can come after reading. Avoid methods that want you to take up to 20 minutes per word!

40 ExC-ELL 40 Multiple Applications of Words Text structureWriting strategyTIER 2 Problem – solutions problems are identified and solutions are provided supporting details describe the problem and solution accordingly, answer, as a result, because, challenge, decide, fortunately, if ___then, issue, one reason is, outcome is, problem, so, solution, the problem is solved by, therefore, thus, unfortunately, trouble Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

41 ExC-ELL 41 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. PRE-TEACHING VOCABULARY An Example for 2 nd to 12 th 1.Teacher says the word. Asks students to repeat the word 3 times. 2.Teacher states the word in context from the text. 3.Teacher provides the dictionary definition(s). 4.Explains meaning with student-friendly definitions. 5.Highlight grammar, spelling, polysemy, etc. 6.  Engages students in activities to develop word/concept knowledge. 7.Remind students how/when to use the word.

42 ExC-ELL 42 1.Teacher asks students to repeat the word. 2.Teacher states the word in context from the text. 3.Teacher provides the dictionary definition(s). 4.Explains meaning with student-friendly definitions. 5.Engages students in activities to develop word/concept knowledge. 6.Highlights features of the word: polysemous, cognate, tense, prefixes, etc. 7.Reminds when to use it. 1.Say effect 3 times. 2.Weather can have a big effect on your life. 3.The result or consequence of something. 4.Two cups of coffee in the morning have a big effect on me -- I can’t sleep at night! 5.What has had a big effect on your life recently? TTYP 6.It is a cognate – efecto. How do we spell effect? What other word is similar? 7.Use effect in your EXIT PASS today. Teaching Concepts/Vocabulary

43 ExC-ELL 43 1.Teacher asks students to repeat the word. 2.Teacher states the word in context from the text. 3.Teacher provides the dictionary definition(s). 4.Explains meaning with student- friendly definitions. 5.Highlights features of the word: polysemous, cognate, tense, prefixes, etc. 6.Engages students in activities to develop word/concept knowledge. 7.Reminds when to use it. 1.Say transformational 3 times. 2.America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. 3.to change, to convert, to revolutionize. (life-changing) 4.Twitter has had a transformational impact on how we communicate! 5.The cognate for transform is – transformar. What other word is similar? 6.What would have a transformational impact on your life? TTYP 7.Use transformational in your EXIT PASS today. Teaching Concepts/Vocabulary

44 ExC-ELL 44 1.Teacher selects the word and sentence from the text. 2.Provides the dictionary definition. 3.Explains meaning with student- friendly definitions. 4.Asks students to repeat the word 3 times. 5.Highlights features of the word: polysemous, cognates, etc. 6.Engages students in activities to develop word knowledge. 7.Reminds how they will use it. 1.…a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. 2.[noun] To create a momentous or sweeping change in someone or something. 3.Example: Jason’s marriage created a revolution with his in-laws. [adjective] Was it because he was a revolutionary? 4.Say revolution 3 times. Now say revolutionary 3 times. 5.What is the cognate for revolutionary? 6.Use the word as a verb and as an adjective. 7.Use both revolution and revolutionary in your summaries. Teaching Vocabulary

45 ExC-ELL 45 More Examples for Step #6 Popcorn Answers: If you are studying for a test, you need to do it persistently. What else do you need to do persistently? Choral Responses: Add seems to be faithful/unfaithful at the end of the sentence and say the whole sentence: – A cat who always comes home before dark. – A brother who takes care of his sister. – A girl who has 3 boyfriends. – You provide an example for us. Answer and Say Why: Would you have iron will if you: – Were afraid of cats? – Were tired but kept running until you reached the finish line? – Worked very hard to get an “A” on your report card? Applaud and Say the Word if you’d like to be described by the word: faithful, stubborn, awesome, awkward, impish, stern, illuminated.

46 ExC-ELL 46 Your Turn to Teach Us!  Prepare to teach a Tier 2 word using the 7 steps.  Write out the steps.  Teach it to us – role play as if we were your students (3 minutes max).

47 ExC-ELL 47 ORACY The ability to express oneself fluently and grammatically in speech. DISCOURSE A formal discussion of a topic in speech or writing; Engage in conversation. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

48 ExC-ELL 48 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. CCSS = ORACY PREVALENT IN COMPLEX TEXTS Develop a sense of excitement about words through games, puns, jokes, word play focusing on multiple word meanings, morphology, phonology and orthography. Use new vocabulary in rich discussions, oral and written summaries. Students have rich rigorous conversations which are dependent on a common text.

49 ExC-ELL 49 Argumentation Discourse Purpose: share perspectives, provide evidence and claims, offer counterclaims, and disagree without being disagreeable. Students stay on topic and think deeply about what the partner says. Partners help ELs express their ideas. Discourse: I read… I found that on page… I disagree because… I agree with … because…

50 ExC-ELL 50 Discourse for Text Discussions This is about… I understand this is about… I think this is about… I liked the … I learned a new word… The same happened to me when… This text is about… I liked the part where.. I think this means… I don’t understand this part … That character reminds me of … That part reminds me of…

51 ExC-ELL 51 Main categories of grammar that are difficult for ELLs A.Compound and complex sentences B.Nominalization and long noun phrases C.Passive voice structures D.Long or multiple prepositional phrases and idioms. GRAMMAR

52 ExC-ELL 52 A Queen’s Wish One gray winter day the elderly queen summoned all her grandchildren to the castle. “I have been fortunate to have lived a long life,” she said. “But in time your generation will rule the country. You must work persistently to help the people and take care of the land. “We will always work hard,” the children replied. “You must also be faithful to your brothers and sisters, no matter what,” the queen said.

53 ExC-ELL 53 Vocabulary and Oracy Development Takes Place During: 1.Pre-teaching of vocabulary 2.Teacher read alouds 3.Student peer reading 4.Peer summaries 5.Depth of word studies/grammar 6.Class discussions 1.Pre-teaching of vocabulary 2.Teacher read alouds 3.Student peer reading 4.Peer summaries 5.Depth of word studies/grammar 6.Class discussions 7.Cooperative learning activities 8.Formulating questions and Numbered Heads 9.Round Table Reviews 10.Pre-writing & drafting 11.Revising/editing 12.Reading Final Product 7.Cooperative learning activities 8.Formulating questions and Numbered Heads 9.Round Table Reviews 10.Pre-writing & drafting 11.Revising/editing 12.Reading Final Product

54 ExC-ELL 54 Consolidation Activities Activity: Exit Pass 1. The most important thing I learned about vocabulary is……. Therefore, I will …….. 2. One of the most effective teacher vocabulary presentations was for the word, _________, because………… 3. List three effective step 6 activities you observed and explain why they work. Assignment: Read “The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies” ” Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

55 The Most Important…. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Vocabulary The most important thing about teaching vocabulary is ____________________. p. 1 It is also important _______. p. 2 It is equally important ___. p. 3 But the most important thing about teaching vocabulary is ____________________. p. 4

56 ExC-ELL 56 EVIDENCE-BASED INSTRUCTION FOR ELS IN BILINGUAL SETTINGS Teaching Content Reading Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

57 ExC-ELL 57 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Fluency doesn’t mean only reading x number of words per minute; it embraces both word recognition and comprehension as the: –Ability to comprehend each word being read –Ability to read words quickly, accurately and with proper expression –Ability to access vital background knowledge and process the connector phrases/sentences in the text ( Council for Advancing Adolescent Literacy, 2009) Word knowledge helps free cognitive resources for comprehension (National Literacy Panel for Language Minority Children and Youth, 2006) “What we read and how deeply we read shape both the brain and the thinker ” ( Wolf & Barzillai, Education Leadership: March 2009). ) Fluency

58 ExC-ELL 58 Text Features Nonfiction text makes use of features readers can recognize and use to help understand the text. Activity: Seek, find and add to the list. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Text FeatureHow does it help me read and understand? Table of Contents Headings

59 ExC-ELL 59 Seek and Find Activity Newspaper: Circle and Label Books: Tag and Label Share and explain how the text feature helps with comprehension. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

60 ExC-ELL 60 Reading Road Signs

61 ExC-ELL 61 Text Structure Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Description provides a specific topic and its attributes main idea(s) is/are supported by rich/descriptive details above, across, all, also, appears to be, as an example, behind, below, beside, by observing, characteristics are, for example, for instance Sequence provides information/events in chronological order details are in specific order to convey specific meaning additionally, after, after that, afterward, another, at __(time), before, during, finally, first, following, initially, last, later, meanwhile, next Problem-Solution problems are identified and solutions are provided supporting details describe the problem and solution accordingly, answer, as a result, because, challenge, decide, fortunately, if __then, issue, one reason is, outcome is, problem, so Structure Signal Words Graphic

62 ExC-ELL 62 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Text Structures

63 ExC-ELL 63 Before Reading Science, Math, Social Studies, and Language Arts Step 1: Build Content or Concept Background Explicitly Pre-teach Key Words and Phrases for it Set Content Objective and Level of Complexity for Reading Discuss Text Features and Text Structures Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

64 ExC-ELL 64 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Teacher Read and Think Alouds Fluency Comprehension Strategies Self-correction Fix-it strategies Extend comprehension Teach more words Step 2: Model Reading Comprehension Strategy MODELMODEL MODELMODEL

65 ExC-ELL 65 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

66 ExC-ELL 66 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Clean Energy Technologies Wind farm ages.photos.asp?ss=wind%20power%20plant Coal fired electric plant commons.wikimedia.org

67 ExC-ELL 67 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Clean Energy Technologies https://www.google.com/#q=electric+car+images Chellascommoncents.com/cleaning images.thetruthaboutcars.com

68 ExC-ELL 68 For decades, America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. But even as costs fell and technology matured, a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. Critics often said a clean energy future would “always be five years away.” This report focuses on four technology revolutions that are here today. In the last five years they have achieved dramatic reductions in cost and this has been accompanied by a surge in consumer, industrial and commercial deployment. Although these four technologies still represent a small percentage of their total market (e.g. electricity, cars and lighting), they are growing rapidly. p. 23 Gaining Force 1

69 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that well- designed federal and state incentives and investments in research and development have the potential to stimulate significant energy transformations. For instance, from the U.S. federal government’s production incentives for shale gas and support for new drilling technologies laid the foundation for that industry’s dramatic rise. Today, time- limited tax credits for wind, solar and electric vehicles and targeted support for research and development are supporting the expansion of these burgeoning markets. p Model Partner Reading

70 Partner Reading Practice Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. This analysis explains both the magnitude of and mechanisms behind these nascent revolutions – exploring the intersection between declining costs and surging demand. These industries are providing real world solutions for reducing emissions of harmful carbon pollution and slowing the effects of climate change. Each of the sectors examined has also become a major opportunity for America’s clean energy economy. The trends in each sector show that the historic shift to a cleaner, more domestic and more secure energy future is not some far away goal. We are living it, and it is gaining force. p.23

71 ExC-ELL 71 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. The teacher reads and models strategies. Partner A reads the first sentence. Partner B helps. Partner B reads the next sentence. Partner A helps. After each paragraph, partners “put their heads together” and summarize what they read using Tier 2 and Tier 3 words. Partners continue until they finish reading the section assigned. Step 3: Partner Reading

72 ExC-ELL 72 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Partner A reads a paragraph. Partner B helps. Partner A retells what happened in the paragraph or identifies the main idea/target strategy. Partner B adds details. (The partner who reads the paragraph always retells/identifies the strategy applied.) Partners A and B alternate roles. The teacher leads a short discussion of the page to check comprehension. As a part of the discussion, partners share a word that was difficult for them and the strategy they used to read it. Partner Reading – Option 2

73 ExC-ELL 73 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Land-Based Wind Power Wind deployments on a steep upward climb Today, deployed wind power in the United States has the equivalent generation capacity of about 60 large nuclear reactors. Wind is the first non-hydro renewable energy source to begin to approach the same scale as conventional energy forms like coal, gas and nuclear. p

74 ExC-ELL 74 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. This success has been decades in the making – with both government and private-sector R&D dollars propelling its progress. From a technology standpoint three elements have been key to wind power’s success. The first is increasing size: wind turbines have gotten progressively larger in terms of generation capacity over the past 30 years and this has helped to drive down costs. In fact, since 1999 the average amount of electricity generated by a single turbine has increased by about 260%. The second is the scale of production. As with many industries, increases in scale tend to drive down costs. Finally, wind farm operators have become much more sophisticated in understanding and adapting to dynamic wind patterns. This has helped drive up the “capacity factor” – or the percentage of time that turbines are actually producing electricity. The federal Production Tax Credit – which pays an additional 2.3¢ a kilowatt hour for the electricity produced by wind turbines over the first 10 years of operation – has also been critically important to incentivizing deployment of wind energy.

75 ExC-ELL 75 Step 4: Whole Class Debriefing  Clarify words students did not understand; those they listed on post it notes.  Have students report on gist of paragraph.  Ask text-dependent questions beginning with simple questions requiring attention to specific words, details, arguments text structure or relevant aspects of the passage. After section assigned for partner reading : Does the author support the statement that “there is stuff going on”? Explain.

76 ExC-ELL 76 How is this beneficial to students? How does the summary help with oracy? Let’s Debrief Review the steps. What did you observe during this strategy?

77 ExC-ELL 77 The future of wind Wind continues to be one of America’s best choices for low-cost, zero carbon, zero pollution renewable energy. The combined potential of land- based and off-shore wind is about 140 quads – or about 10 times U.S. electricity consumption today. And wind is 100% renewable, so it won’t ever run out. The industry is working to build new power transmission lines from some of the windiest parts of the country, to the most densely populated in order to maintain aggressive growth in the sector. This also includes building “marine” wind farms offshore – where steady ocean breezes harbor vast wind power potential. With continued technology improvements and policy support, the Department of Energy estimates that as much as 20% of projected U.S. electricity demand could be met by wind power by

78 ExC-ELL 78 READING ANCHOR STRATEGIES: Oral summaries Formulating Bloom Questions by students Numbered Heads Together Round Table for anchoring new words Concept maps, semantic maps, graphing Other Cooperative Learning strategies Exit/Entry Pass for anchoring sentences, concepts, and tier 2 and 3 words Other types of writing to summarize Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

79 ExC-ELL 79 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. CCSS = QUESTIONS AND LANGUAGE/CONTENT LITERACY TASKS High-quality sequences of text-dependent questions should be modeled. Questions should begin with relatively simple questions requiring attention to specific words, details, and arguments, and then more to explore the impact of those specifics on the text as a whole. Series of questions that demonstrate students ability to follow the details of what is explicitly stated in the text.

80 ExC-ELL 80 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Students work in teams of four: 1.Construct 2 questions based on the specific Bloom level assigned to you. 2.Write each question on a separate card. 3.Give your cards to the teacher. Formulating Questions Step 5: Connect Reading and Writing

81 ExC-ELL 81 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Process – 1 THINKING PROCESS VERBS FOR OBJECTIVES MODEL QUESTIONS INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES (Knowledge-1) Shallow processing: drawing out factual answers, testing recall and recognition R E M E M B E R choose describe define identify label list locate match memorize name omit recite recognize select state Who? Where? Which one? What? How? What is the best? Why? How Much? When? What does it mean? Highlighting Rehearsal Memorizing Mnemonics

82 ExC-ELL 82 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Numbered Heads Together Number off in your team from 1 to 4. Listen to the question. Put your heads together and find the answer. Make sure everyone in your team knows the answer. Be prepared to answer when your number is called.

83 ExC-ELL 83 Clear your desks. Only one paper and pencil. Each student writes one answer and passes the paper to the right. Everyone must write an answer. Continue this process until the teacher calls time out.  Count the number of correct responses by your team. Delete repeated words and report your numbers. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

84 ExC-ELL 84 Write a key word from the text and pass the paper. Keep writing one word at a time until time is up. The words must be Tier 2 or 3.  Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

85 ExC-ELL 85 Round 2 Put your heads together and come up with a strategy to improve your team total. Apply your strategy in Round 2 of Round Table. Follow the same rules as for Round 1. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

86 ExC-ELL 86 The ultimate proof -- at the end of the block, day, week: Write one or two paragraphs summarizing what you learned about _______________ using as many tier 2 and tier 3 words as you have learned. Extra points if you use appropriate connectors, transition or signal words. Use compound sentences or different types of clauses. Assessment & Writing Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

87 ExC-ELL 87 Inside the Foldable Coordinating Conjunction Correlative Conjunction Subordinating Conjunction Conjunctive Adverb FANBOYS: F – for A – and N – nor B – but O – or Y – yet S – so both... and either... or neither... nor not only... but also whether... or after, although, as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, even though, if, in order that, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, while accordingly, again, also, besides, consequently, finally, furthermore, however, indeed, instead, moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, then, therefore, thus Samples: My Dad and his friend met for lunch today. My examples: Samples: Either the pencil or the pen will work. My examples: Samples: I made the grocery list after I checked the pantry. My examples: Samples: The movie was good; however, I prefer the book. My examples: Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

88 ExC-ELL 88 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Writing to Learn Writing ModePurposeKey Verbs/Phrases Description / Expressive Use concrete/sensory details to describe a person, place or event so that reader can visualize and sense what is described. Describe, create a picture Narration Tell a story (real, personal, imaginary) in a time sequence. Tell, tell about a time, imagine that… Exposition / Informative Convey information by explaining ideas, facts or processes, without analysis or interpretation. Explain, explain how, tell why (cause and effect), classify, compare and contrast. Persuasion Influence or convince the reader to agree with the writer by providing reasons or examples. Convince/persuade/present an argument about an idea or point of view.

89 ExC-ELL 89 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Writing to Learn Writing ModePurposeKey Verbs/Phrases Problem/Solution Showing the development of a problem and one or more solutions to the problem. The author states a problem and various solutions or states a question-answer format and then answers the problem. Explain,, because, consequently, as a result, ultimately, the answer was, added new parts, deleted old parts Compare/Contrast Pointing out likenesses (comparison) and/or differences (contrast) among facts, people, events, concepts Compare how two or more things are alike and/or are different. It is quite different from, it is so similar to, it is just like, it differs in that, in contrast, on the other hand.. Cause/Effect To show how facts, events, or concepts (effects) happen or come into being because of other facts, events, or concepts. Explain, explain how, tell why (cause and effect), classify, compare and contrast. When, consequently, as a result of …

90 ExC-ELL 90 Form teams of 3 or 4. One paper and pencil for each. Each student completes the prompt and passes the paper to the right. Each student continues to write one sentence and pass the paper to the right until the teacher calls time out.  Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

91 ExC-ELL 91 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Drafting: Team Chooses one The historic shifts to a cleaner, more domestic and more secure energy future is a realistic goal because… Or The historic shifts to a cleaner, more domestic and more secure energy future is not a realistic goal because… Use as many Tier 2 & 3 words as possible.

92 ExC-ELL 92 Do a Read-Around-Aloud. Read the composition you are holding to your team. Select the one you like best. This is the one you will revise and edit. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

93 ExC-ELL 93 CodeClue Circle“to be” verbs: is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been Decide: Keep or change to active verb. Square Make a list of very first word. First word in every sentence. Decide: Keep or change to sophisticated transition word or connector. Underline Tier 1 words Find Tier 1 words. Decide: Keep or substitute with Tier 2 word. Chart for Ratiocination Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

94 ExC-ELL 94 Revising: Cut and Grow Students find a sentence that needs to be followed with evidence. Students cut their compositions right after the sentence where they are going to add evidence from the text. The additional sentences are written on the colored sheet. Once written, the students tape the rest of their composition onto the colored sheet. Students reread their improved compositions. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. cut grow

95 ExC-ELL 95 Argumentation is HUGE in the Standards; let’s make sure our students have the academic discourse to do it properly

96 ExC-ELL 96 Example: Argumentation Discourse Purpose: share perspectives, provide evidence and claims, offer counterclaims, and disagree without being disagreeable. Students stay on topic and think deeply about what the partner says. Partners help ELs express their ideas. Discourse: I read… I found that on page… I disagree because… I agree with … because…

97 ExC-ELL 97 Argumentative Speech/Writing The effect of … on… The evidence I use to support … is… I disagree with that observation because… I concur with her/him because … Moreover, I found that … Furthermore, based on … I think … Based on … my hypothesis is …. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

98 ExC-ELL 98 Thinking/Writing My Argument? 1.What is my point of view? 2.Is the evidence credible and accurate? 3.Is the evidence sufficient? 4.Is the order of evidence appropriate? 5.Will my argument convince my readers? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

99 ExC-ELL 99 WRITEAROUND 4 Ask a volunteer to read it to the class. 10 minutes to prepare; 1 minute to read. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

100 ExC-ELL 100 BOOKMARKS FOR PARTNERS FIGURE OUT WORDS: Reread that word Say it slowly Use the vowel sounds Cover the word and slowly uncover each part Read the sentence again PARAGRAPH SUMMARIES: Who What Where When Why How Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

101 ExC-ELL 101 A quote/fact/sentence you liked: A fact that surprised you: Two facts you will remember: A quote/fact/sentence you liked: A fact that surprised you: Two facts you will remember: What I thought about that: Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

102 ExC-ELL 102 Page _____ Page _____ SUMMARY STATEMENTS: Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

103 ExC-ELL 103 What is RAFT? R = role (Who are you as a writer?) - allows students to take on a variety of roles to explore different points of view A = audience (To whom are you writing?) - the audience is clearly defined F = format (What form will the writing take?) - essay, speech, letter, dialogue, memo, etc. T = topic (What is the subject?) - must be narrow enough so students are not overwhelmed Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

104 ExC-ELL 104 Example of RAFT Assignments RAFT News reporterCollege-educated adults News articleGlobal warming AstronomerFirst gradersTravel guideJourney through the solar system Acute triangleObtuse triangleLetterDifferences among triangles Jackie RobinsonHall of Fame Audience Acceptance speech My life in baseball Tornado trackerWeather reporterInterviewFacts about tornados Hermione Granger Harry PotterDialogueWhy are you so suspicious? Rosa ParksHistoriansDiary entryThe boycott Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

105 ExC-ELL 105 Story Map for a Narrative CharactersSetting Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Beginning (What is the problem/conflict?) Middle (What events happened?) Event 1Event 2Event 3 End (How is the problem solved or the conflict resolved?

106 ExC-ELL 106 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Each team tears two sheets of different-colored construction paper into creative pieces. Share your piece with your team and talk about it -- What does it look like? Write a group story with plot, characters, background setting. Paste the pieces beside the story of that match. Share your story. Tear ups!

107 ExC-ELL 107 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Each team tears two sheets of different-colored construction paper into creative pieces. 1 st Day Procedures and Rules Argumentative (use 5 tier 2 or 3 words) Narrative – setting character plot Paste the pieces beside the story of that match. Share your story. Tear ups!

108 ExC-ELL 108 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

109 ExC-ELL 109 Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

110 ExC-ELL 110 NEXT STEPS FOR A SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION And homework… Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

111 ExC-ELL 111 Vocabulary and Oracy Development Takes Place During: 1.Pre-teaching of vocabulary 2.Teacher read alouds 3.Student peer reading 4.Peer summaries 5.Depth of word studies/grammar 6.Class discussions 1.Pre-teaching of vocabulary 2.Teacher read alouds 3.Student peer reading 4.Peer summaries 5.Depth of word studies/grammar 6.Class discussions 7.Cooperative learning activities 8.Formulating questions and Numbered Heads 9.Round Table Reviews 10.Pre-writing & drafting 11.Revising/editing 12.Reading Final Product 7.Cooperative learning activities 8.Formulating questions and Numbered Heads 9.Round Table Reviews 10.Pre-writing & drafting 11.Revising/editing 12.Reading Final Product

112 ExC-ELL 112 Whole Class & Small Group Reading Approaches: WHOLE CLASS 1.Pre-teaching of vocabulary 2.Teacher think alouds to model reading comprehension and word meaning in context 3.Student peer reading using strategies 4.Peer summaries 5.Class discussions WHOLE CLASS 1.Pre-teaching of vocabulary 2.Teacher think alouds to model reading comprehension and word meaning in context 3.Student peer reading using strategies 4.Peer summaries 5.Class discussions SMALL GROUP 1.Pre-teaching of vocabulary 2.Teacher think alouds to model reading comprehension and word meaning in context 3.Student peer reading using strategies 4.Peer summaries 5.Group discussions SMALL GROUP 1.Pre-teaching of vocabulary 2.Teacher think alouds to model reading comprehension and word meaning in context 3.Student peer reading using strategies 4.Peer summaries 5.Group discussions

113 ExC-ELL 113 Vocabulary, Language, Literacy & Knowledge Progressions How do your students progress through the different proficiency levels? Does their vocabulary progress in the 4 language domains – listening, speaking, reading, writing? Does their vocabulary progress in the 4 core subjects – math, science, social studies, language arts? Is their academic language differentiated and targeted for each proficiency level and range of schooling background? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

114 ExC-ELL Adhere fidelity to all ExC-ELL components 2.Have % of teachers in a school implementing ExC-ELL 3.Train administrators and coaches 4.Coach teachers 3 to 5 times a year 5.Implement TLCs/PLCs How to be successful!

115 ExC-ELL 115 Wishing you success in your new endeavors! THANK YOU!!! Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

116 ExC-ELL 116 POST in classroom: Objective/Aim/assessment -- what is to be tested at the end of the unit Comprehension Strategy Tiers 1, 2, 3 DO NOW – review activities for words previously learned. (3-5 min.) Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

117 ExC-ELL 117 Build Background (3 min) Vocabulary-- 7 step process ( min) Reading-- Read Aloud/Think Aloud (model strategy/skill) (3 min) More Vocabulary: During Read Aloud/Think Aloud (2 min) Partner Reading (practice strategy/skill) (10 min) Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

118 ExC-ELL 118 Question Formulation – Numbered Heads Together (10 – 15 min) More vocabulary: semantic maps, cognitive maps, graphic organizers (5- 10 min) Write Around (5 – 15 min) Round Table (10 min) Tea Party (10 min) Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

119 ExC-ELL 119 Jigsaws (15 – 20 min) other cooperative learning techniques WRITING (connect writing to reading) (each day 1 – 10 min) ASSESSMENT Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.


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