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Decoding Scientific Text Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools Reading in the Content Areas.

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Presentation on theme: "Decoding Scientific Text Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools Reading in the Content Areas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Decoding Scientific Text Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools Reading in the Content Areas

2 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Objective & Rationale Essential Question: What are strategies to help students decode scientific text using knowledge- building and cognitive dimensions? Essential Question: What are strategies to help students decode scientific text using knowledge- building and cognitive dimensions?  Students who struggle to decode will also struggle to comprehend text.  Scientific textbooks have the 3 rd highest lexile score of content area books.  Therefore, science teachers must engage students in direct learning of decoding and comprehension strategies in order for them to be successful.

3 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Agenda What does the research say? What does the research say? Knowledge-Building Strategies Knowledge-Building Strategies  Cloze Reading  Jargonectomy  Redaction Cognitive Strategies Cognitive Strategies  Identifying Visuals  Cornell Notes  Jigsaw Activity  (Relay Race) Implications for Classroom Application Implications for Classroom Application

4 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, The Dimensions of Classroom Interaction Adapted from the Reading Apprenticeship Framework, 2004 Social Dimension Social Dimension  Investigating relationship between literacy and power  Sharing reading problems and solutions  Noticing others’ ways of reading Personal Dimension Personal Dimension  Developing reader identify  Developing metacognition  Developing fluency and stamina Knowledge-Building Dimension  Building knowledge structures (schemata)  Developing word construction and vocabulary  Developing discourse-based knowledge Cognitive Dimension  Getting the big picture  Using problem-solving strategies to aid comprehension  Monitoring comprehension

5 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Cognitive Strategies Adapted from R. Payne, 2002 Cognitive Strategies can be divided into three groups (see handout for complete list) : Cognitive Strategies can be divided into three groups (see handout for complete list) :  Input: quantity and quality of data gathered (Knowledge-Building)  Elaboration: efficient use of the data (Cognitive)  Output: communication of elaboration and input (Cognitive)

6 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Constructs of Science Content Adapted from R. Payne, 2002 Science Course Construct Biology Identifying living systems and relationships within and among those systems ChemistryBonding Physics Using matter and energy through math applications Earth Science Identifying and predicting physical phenomena These constructs help inform what is important to the curriculum.

7 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, The Knowledge-Building Dimension Written word + prior experience = knowledge building Written word + prior experience = knowledge building Primary skills involved: Primary skills involved:  vocabulary acquisition  word decoding  text structure Result: discipline-specific language Result: discipline-specific language

8 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Knowledge-Building: Cloze Reading The Cloze technique requires students to be actively involved in the reading process. The Cloze technique requires students to be actively involved in the reading process. Strategic word omission asks students to supply the missing information themselves. Strategic word omission asks students to supply the missing information themselves. This strategy can be used when learning new information or reviewing material. This strategy can be used when learning new information or reviewing material.

9 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Knowledge-Building: Cloze Reading Read the assigned passage. Read the assigned passage. Try to fill each blank with the correct word. Try to fill each blank with the correct word. Use context clues to help you. Use context clues to help you. When you think you have the passage complete and correct, raise your hand. When you think you have the passage complete and correct, raise your hand.

10 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Knowledge-Building: Cloze Reading Word Bank: Word Bank:  chordates  dorsal  embryos  gills  muscles  nerve  tail  throat  pharyngeal  phylum

11 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Knowledge-Building: Cloze Reading Members of the phylum Chordata are called chordates. To be classified as a chordate, an animal must have four key characteristics, although these characteristics need not be present during the entire life cycle. The hollow nerve cord runs along the dorsal (back) part of the body. Nerves branch from this cord at regular intervals and connect to internal organs, muscles, and sense organs. The notochord is a long supporting rod that runs through the body just below the nerve cord. Most chordates have a notochord only when they are embryos. Pharyngeal pouches are paired structures in the throat (pharynx) region. In some chordates—such as fishes and amphibians—slits develop that connect the pharyngeal pouches to the outside of the body. These slits may then develop gills that are used for gas exchange. At some point in their lives, all chordates have a tail that extends beyond the anus. The tail can contain bone and muscle and is used in swimming by many aquatic species.

12 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Knowledge-Building: Jargonectomy Scientific jargon, or vocabulary, can overwhelm struggling readers. Scientific jargon, or vocabulary, can overwhelm struggling readers. Using context clues to break down jargon into more familiar terms aids in decoding the text. Using context clues to break down jargon into more familiar terms aids in decoding the text. Having students decode text themselves empowers them to decode on their own. Having students decode text themselves empowers them to decode on their own.

13 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Knowledge-Building: Jargonectomy Read the assigned passage. Read the assigned passage. On the lines provided, break down the highlighted terms into more familiar words. On the lines provided, break down the highlighted terms into more familiar words. You may work on your own or with a partner. You may work on your own or with a partner. When you have finished, raise your hand. When you have finished, raise your hand.

14 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Knowledge-Building: Jargonectomy chordates: members of the phylum Chordata chordates: members of the phylum Chordata life cycle: time from birth to death life cycle: time from birth to death hollow: unfilled hollow: unfilled dorsal: back dorsal: back internal: inside internal: inside notochord: long supporting rod pharynx: throat gas exchange: breathing extend: sticks out aquatic: water

15 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Knowledge-Building: Redaction Redaction is the act of reducing something. Redaction is the act of reducing something. Textual redaction helps students eliminate unnecessary information and focus on the essential ideas. Textual redaction helps students eliminate unnecessary information and focus on the essential ideas. This strategy may take significant guided practice before students can redact independently. This strategy may take significant guided practice before students can redact independently.

16 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Knowledge-Building: Redaction Read the assigned passage with about 150 words. Read the assigned passage with about 150 words. Rewrite the passage and reduce to about 75 words. Rewrite the passage and reduce to about 75 words. Determine what additional words can be removed. *This step is crucial to demonstrate understanding of redaction. Determine what additional words can be removed. *This step is crucial to demonstrate understanding of redaction. Write one sentence that summarizes the entire passage. Write one sentence that summarizes the entire passage.

17 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, The Cognitive Dimension Retainable comprehension = decoding + application Retainable comprehension = decoding + application Primary skills involved: Primary skills involved:  Mental models  Organization  Repetition  Comprehension The Result: Improved understanding of content area The Result: Improved understanding of content area

18 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Cognitive: Identifying Visuals Developing mental models is a reading skill that many struggling readers lack. Developing mental models is a reading skill that many struggling readers lack. Reading a passage followed by identifying visuals is one way to track this skill. Reading a passage followed by identifying visuals is one way to track this skill. Providing the correct visuals for students ensures that they are working with accurate information. Providing the correct visuals for students ensures that they are working with accurate information. The visuals can also be used as review material prior to assessment. The visuals can also be used as review material prior to assessment.

19 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Cognitive: Identifying Visuals Read the assigned passage. Read the assigned passage. Label the visuals so that they reflect the ideas in the passage. Label the visuals so that they reflect the ideas in the passage. Determine what details helped you decide the order (use hi-liter). Determine what details helped you decide the order (use hi-liter). When you are finished, raise your hand. When you are finished, raise your hand.

20 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Cognitive: Cornell Notes Note taking is an important skill for all students. Note taking is an important skill for all students. Struggling readers need support in organizing information. Struggling readers need support in organizing information. Cornell note taking method provides structure and ease of information interpretation. Cornell note taking method provides structure and ease of information interpretation.

21 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Cognitive: Cornell Notes Read the assigned passage. Read the assigned passage. Using the model as a guide, complete a page of notes. Using the model as a guide, complete a page of notes. Share your notes with a partner and compare. Share your notes with a partner and compare. When you think you are finished, raise your hand. When you think you are finished, raise your hand.

22 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Cognitive: Cornell Notes Topic: Blood Vessels Vocabulary/Cues: aorta arteries “superhighway” capillaries “side streets & alleys” veins “main streets” Notes: major artery carrying blood leaving heart carry blood from heart to tissues carry oxygen-rich blood thick walls that withstand pressure of heart contractions smallest blood vessels walls = 1 cell thick cells pass through single file bring nutrients and oxygen absorb carbon dioxide and waste carry blood to heart large veins contain valves to keep blood moving many located near skeletal muscles exercise keeps blood moving (especially against force of gravity) Summary: Three types of blood vessels, arteries, capillaries, and veins, move blood through the circulatory system.

23 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Cognitive: Jigsaw Repetition is crucial for information to move from short term to long term memory. Repetition is crucial for information to move from short term to long term memory. The jigsaw activity provides several opportunities for students to hear the same information. The jigsaw activity provides several opportunities for students to hear the same information. The accountability of the peer teaching method helps struggling readers experience success. The accountability of the peer teaching method helps struggling readers experience success.

24 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Cognitive: Jigsaw In your assigned group, read the passage. In your assigned group, read the passage. Complete your group task: Complete your group task:  A: Complete the vocabulary definitions  B: Write a brief summary of the passage (5 sentence maximum)  C: Complete a KLW Chart  D: Create a web of main idea and details  E: Generate questions for review

25 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Cognitive: Jigsaw When all groups are finished with their part, relocate to your “jigsaw” group. When all groups are finished with their part, relocate to your “jigsaw” group. In your new group, share the information from your old group. In your new group, share the information from your old group. Answer any clarifying questions. Answer any clarifying questions. The result: each student has a complete handout for this passage. The result: each student has a complete handout for this passage. Prepare for a short quiz (just kidding!). Prepare for a short quiz (just kidding!).

26 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Cognitive: Relay Race Students need to clearly comprehend what they have read. Students need to clearly comprehend what they have read. Identifying main idea and details is one strategy for checking understanding. Identifying main idea and details is one strategy for checking understanding. Adding an element of competition or “fun” can improve student engagement. Adding an element of competition or “fun” can improve student engagement.

27 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Cognitive: Relay Race Read the assigned passage. Do NOT discuss the passage with your peers. Read the assigned passage. Do NOT discuss the passage with your peers. When prompted by the teacher/facilitator, complete the following steps: When prompted by the teacher/facilitator, complete the following steps:  Student 1: write the main idea on the line provided  Student 2-end: write a detail to support the main idea When your group has completed the “race,” raise your hands. When your group has completed the “race,” raise your hands. Alternative: Fan Activity Alternative: Fan Activity

28 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Cognitive: Relay Race Sample responses: Sample responses:  Main idea: Zebra mussels are a nuisance in our waterways.  Details:  few natural enemies  reproduce rapidly  attach to any surface  form layers up to 20 cm thick  caused structural damage  threaten ecology of aquatic community  displaced mollusks  depleted food of many fish species

29 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Classroom Implications Decoding Scientific Text: Strategies for the Classroom Handout Decoding Scientific Text: Strategies for the Classroom Handout Direct reading instruction in science classrooms will improve students’ understanding of the subject Direct reading instruction in science classrooms will improve students’ understanding of the subject Teaching reading does not mean losing precious content-area time Teaching reading does not mean losing precious content-area time

30 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, Contact Information Let me know what strategies you try! Let me know what strategies you try! Alexandra Hoskins, RCA Program Specialist Alexandra Hoskins, RCA Program Specialist   x34216

31 Winston-Salem Forsyth County Schools, References Fernsten, Linda, and Sandra Loughran. “Reading into Science: Making it Meaningful.” Science Scope 31.1 (Sept. 2007): EBSCOhost database. 10 October Fernsten, Linda, and Sandra Loughran. “Reading into Science: Making it Meaningful.” Science Scope 31.1 (Sept. 2007): EBSCOhost database. 10 October Kitts, Kathy. “Reading in Science: Targeted Learning Skills.” Northern Illinois University (2006). 17 October Kitts, Kathy. “Reading in Science: Targeted Learning Skills.” Northern Illinois University (2006). 17 October 2007.http://jove.geol.niu.edu Pauk, Walter. How to Study in College (2001). New York: Houghton Mifflin. Pauk, Walter. How to Study in College (2001). New York: Houghton Mifflin. Payne, Ruby K. Learning Structures (2005). Highlands, TX: aha! Process Inc. Payne, Ruby K. Learning Structures (2005). Highlands, TX: aha! Process Inc. Strategic Literacy Initiative. “The Reading Apprenticeship Framework.” 11 October Strategic Literacy Initiative. “The Reading Apprenticeship Framework.” 11 October 2007.www.wested.org/stratlit/about/ra-2pg.pdf


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