Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO READING AND STUDYING: BEING SUCCESSFUL IN COLLEGE IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL LEARN: What you need to know about reading and studying."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO READING AND STUDYING: BEING SUCCESSFUL IN COLLEGE IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL LEARN: What you need to know about reading and studying The keys to studying college textbooks What comprehension monitoring is and why it is important What the SQ3R study system is How you can adjust your reading rate What you need to do to be successful in college The importance of setting goals What learning styles are
What do you need to know about the reading and study process? Reading is more than just decoding and pronouncing words, or moving your eyes in a certain way. Reading is a form of the thinking process. The goal of reading is to comprehend the author’s message. You must make connections between what you are reading and information you already know. This is called prior knowledge. Prior knowledge: What you already know about a topic; also known as background knowledge.
How can you activate your prior knowledge when you begin reading an assignment? One way is to preview the assignment. Previewing: Examining material to determine its topic and organization before actually reading it.
Good readers are active readers. To be an active reader, you must constantly ask questions and think about how the material is organized. Good readers use the skill of predicting. Predicting helps readers focus their concentration on what they are reading. Predicting: Making educated guesses about what is coming next.
Even good readers need to reread certain things, especially if the material is complicated or the topic is unfamiliar. Good readers take specific steps to fix the problem whenever they realize they are not comprehending what they are reading. Skillful readers adjust their reading strategies and their reading rate according to the type of material they are reading and their purpose for reading. What you need to know about the reading and study process (con’t):
What are the keys to studying college textbooks? Monitor your comprehension. Be selective as you read and study. Organize as you read and study. Rehearse the information in order to remember it.
The keys to studying college textbooks (con’t): What you do during your study time is more important than simply spending large amounts of time studying. Successful students know that there are proven techniques that make studying more productive. Often, what makes the difference between being a successful student and being a less successful one is applying these study skills in a systematic way.
What is comprehension monitoring and why is it important? Comprehension monitoring: Evaluating your understanding as you read and correcting the problem whenever you realize that you are not comprehending. As you are reading and studying, ask yourself this question: “Am I understanding what I am reading?” If you do not understand what you are reading, try to pinpoint the problem by asking yourself, “Why am I not understanding?” If you can determine why you are not comprehending, you can take steps to correct the problem.
Comprehension monitoring (con’t): Problem: I am not understanding because the topic is completely new to me. Solutions: Read a bit further to see if the information that confuses you is explained or becomes clear to you. Look up the topic in an encyclopedia or another textbook. Stop and ask for a brief explanation from someone who is knowledgeable about the topic. Read simpler or supplemental materials on the same topic (usually available from a library).
Comprehension monitoring (con’t): Problem: I am not understanding because there are words I do not know. Solutions: Try to use the rest of the sentence or paragraph (the context) to figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word. Look up unfamiliar words in a dictionary or in the glossary at the back of the textbook. Ask someone the meaning of the unfamiliar words. Write down the meanings of the new words you are learning.
Comprehension monitoring (con’t): Problem: I am not understanding because distractors are interfering with my concentration. Distractors may be physical (such as noise or being hungry) or psychological (such as daydreaming or worrying about other things you have to do). Solutions: Identify any physical distractors that are interfering with your concentration and take steps to eliminate them. For example, Move to a quiet room or close the door. Do not sit facing a window. Turn off the television and background music. Do not answer the telephone. Take a short break and eat a light snack. Do not try to study lying down, or you may fall asleep.
Make comprehension monitoring a habit. After all, if you do not understand what you are reading, you are not really reading. You are just looking at the words.
How can you be selective as you read and study? Being selective as you read and study means focusing on main ideas and important supporting details. If you focus selectively on understanding main ideas and supporting details, you will be less likely to feel overwhelmed by the material, and you will be more likely to remember the most important points the author wants you to learn.
How can you organize as you read and study? Organization is another key to learning and remembering what you read when you study. Organized material is easier to learn, memorize, and recall than unorganized material. Organizing as you read and study means arranging main ideas and supporting details in a meaningful way. This is something you should do on paper. Organizing material you read and study is one way to transfer what you are learning to your long-term (more permanent) memory.
How can you rehearse information to remember it? Rehearsing to remember information: Saying or writing material to transfer it into long-term memory. Rehearsal is not merely rereading, nor is it a casual overview. Rehearsal is an active way to review. Ideally, rehearsal should involve: visual learning (looking at the information you have organized into notes or review cards) auditory learning (saying information out loud several times so that you hear the information) and tactile learning (writing the information several times). Rehearsal is especially important when the material is complex.
Rehearsing information to remember it (con’t): Comprehending and remembering are two separate tasks. The fact that you comprehend textbook material does not mean that you will automatically remember it. However, material that you understand will be much easier to memorize than material that you do not understand. To remember material as well as understand it, you must rehearse it.
What is the SQ3R study system? The SQ3R study method is a simple, systematic approach to studying textbook material. It can enhance your comprehension and retention of material you read. It consists of five steps: Survey: Get an overview of the chapter. Look at headings and subheadings, visual and graphic aids, and words in special print. Read the preface and chapter summary.
SQ3R study system (con’t): Question: Ask questions based on your preview in the Survey step. Turn chapter headings into questions. Create at least one question per section or subsection. Read questions the author includes in the chapter. Read: Read each section with your question in mind. Read actively to search for answers to questions. Reading with a purpose is essential to comprehension and retention.
SQ3R study system (con’t): Recite: After reading each section, stop, recite your questions, and try to answer them aloud from memory. If you cannot answer a question, go back and find the answer. Do not go to the next section until you can recite the answer from memory. Review: After you have completed the earlier steps, review all of your questions, answers, and other chapter Material to transfer the information into your long-term Memory.
How can you adjust your reading rate when you study? Read flexibly, adjusting your rate as needed. Often, you must continue to adjust your rate as you are reading, slowing down when necessary and reading a bit faster when possible.
When to slow down: You know very little about the topic, or it is entirely new to you. A passage consists of complicated or technical material that you need to learn. A passage has details you need to remember. A passage contains new or difficult vocabulary. The material presents directions that you must follow. The material is accompanied by charts or graphs to which you must shift your attention as you read.
When to slow down (con’t): The material requires you to visualize something in your mind (for example, a section on the digestive system in a biology text). The writing is beautiful, artistic, descriptive, or poetic and invites you to linger and enjoy each word. (You may want to read such material aloud to yourself.) The material contains ideas you want to consider carefully (such as two sides of an argument) or "words to live by" (such as philosophical, religious, or inspirational writing).
When to speed up: The whole passage is easy; there are no complicated sentences, no complex ideas, and no difficult terms. There is an easy passage within a longer, more difficult section. A passage gives an example of something you already understand, or explains it in different words.
You are already knowledgeable about the topic. You want only main ideas and are not concerned about details. The material is not related to your purpose for reading (for example, you might “speed” through a section of a magazine article that does not pertain to the topic you are researching). When to speed up (con’t):
Information- gathering techniques Approximate rate (words per minute) Uses Scanning1,000 wpm (words per minute) or more To find a particular piece of information (such as a name, date, or a number) Skimming800-1,000 wpmTo get an overview of material Flexible Reading: Information-Gathering Techniques and Reading Rates
Rapid reading 300-500 wpmFor fairly easy material; when you want only important facts or ideas; for leisure reading Average reading 200-300 wpmFor textbooks, news magazines, journals, and literature Study reading50-200 wpmFor new vocabulary, complex concepts, technical material, and retaining details (such as material to be memorized, legal documents, and material of great interest or importance) Reading rates
How can you improve your reading speed? You can improve your reading speed if you practice reading faster on material that is easy. Although you will never be able to read college textbooks as fast as simpler material, you can learn to read them at a faster rate than you presently do.
To increase your reading rate, practice regularly. Use easy, interesting material, such as newspapers and favorite magazines. Other good choices are short, easy novels and other easy reading.
Read for 15 to 20 minutes each day, pushing yourself to read at a rate that is slightly too fast for you —in other words, a rate that is slightly uncomfortable. Once this rate becomes comfortable, push yourself to read a little faster. (Some students enjoy using a timer when they practice. Set a timer for 15 to 20 minutes and see how many pages you read before your timer goes off.) Keep track of the number of pages you read each day. Focus on concentrating. If you are momentarily distracted, return immediately to your reading.
As you continue to practice, you will find that you are able to read more pages in the same amount of time. You will also find that you can usually understand the important points in a passage even though you are reading it at a faster rate. As you read each day, you will be adding to your background knowledge. This will enable you to read related material even more efficiently in the future.
What do you need to do to be successful in college? There are at least six important factors for success. These are strategies you can begin using today. If you use them consistently, semester by semester, you can become an even more effective and successful student.
1.Successful students are prepared for class. This means much more than completing all homework assignments. Read the textbook assignment carefully, underlining or highlighting main points in the text, and taking notes from the text. Look over information again before class so you can understand what the instructor is talking about and can do a better job of taking notes. Enter class discussions when appropriate. Ask questions that help keep your attention focused while in class.
2. Successful students attend every class. Arrive early. Sit where the instructor can see you, and you can see the instructor. Participate in class discussions, even if only to ask questions. Going to class provides the opportunity to hear more about the important information in homework assignments. Be attentive in class. Turn off cell phones, and focus your attention on what the instructor is saying. Take good notes.
3. Successful students perceive instructors as experts. Instructors are expert resources. Instructors want their students to do well. Do not wait until you need a favor or need help to establish rapport with the instructor. Do not wait until failure is inevitable before you ask for help.
4. Successful students follow an organized study routine. Take time to think about: what you need to complete what you can do at a later date what you can ignore Be aware of when you are using your time well, or wasting time. Establish daily objectives that will help fulfill both short- and long-term goals. Take time to consider and plan intended academic activities on a daily basis. Work ahead so that work does not pile up and so tests and deadlines do not cause undue stress.
5. Successful students develop a set of study skill strategies. Constantly review course information. Develop creative ways to organize course information. Use review cards, summary notes, charts, or diagrams. Reorganizing information requires that students work actively with the information to make sense of it and then organize it in a way so that they can remember it. When preparing for exams, isolate yourself. Start early, review all the assignments, and reread all the important points. Rewrite your notes. Ask for help on material you still do not understand.
6. Successful students take responsibility for their own success. Be realistic about the amount of time you need to study. Continue to study during your study time even when distractions arise. Place a higher priority on schoolwork than social life. Make sacrifices in order to keep up your grades. Recognize the rewards associated with getting an education. Have a clear idea of what why you want to complete college. Know what you want to do once you have completed college.
Why is it important to set goals? Setting goals is a factor that distinguishes not just successful students, but successful people. Setting goals involves identifying things that you would like to accomplish, writing them down, and making a commitment to achieve them.
There are several benefits of setting goals. Here are three main ones: 1.Having goals keeps you motivated. 2.Having goals enables you to make good decisions about how you use your time and energy. 3.Having clear, written goals enables you to measure your progress toward achieving them.
Tips for creating and using goals: To be useful, goals should be specific and clear. They should also be realistic. They should be things that you can actually achieve, even though some may require considerable effort. It is important to put your goals in writing. Otherwise, they are no better than wishes. Writing them down helps you make a commitment to them. Read your list of goals often, and visualize yourself achieving each one. Review your goals on a regular basis. Update your list of goals as needed. Modify the list, add new ones, and remove ones you have attained.
There are three categories of goals, based on the estimated length of time required to achieve them: Short-term goals are goals that you want to accomplish in the next 3-6 months, or during a semester. Intermediate goals are those you want to accomplish during the next 3-5 years. Long-term goals are large, often more complex goals that you want to accomplish during your lifetime. You may find it helpful to categorize your goals, such as personal, financial, health, educational, travel, career, spiritual goals, and so forth.
What are learning styles? A learning style is the modality through which an individual prefers to learn. The modalities are visual, auditory, and tactile. A person’s learning preference may be: tactile (prefers touching or manipulating materials) auditory (prefers hearing information) or visual (prefers reading or seeing)
Three Learning Style Preferences If this is yourthen these are helpful learning style...activities for learning: Visual learner (prefers to read or see information to be learned) Reading textbooks and seeing information in print Seeing information on a computer screen, video monitor, or large classroom screen Reviewing class notes & concept maps Reading your chapter review cards Studying test review sheets
If this is yourthen these are helpful learning style...activities for learning: Auditory learner (prefers to hear information to be learned) Listening to class lectures and discussions Reciting material (saying it out loud) Reading aloud to oneself Listening to audio tapes Participating in study groups
If this is yourthen these are helpful learning style...activities for learning: Making concept maps Rewriting lecture notes after class Preparing study cards Doing laboratory work (science labs, computer labs, etc.) Actually going through steps or procedure in a process Taking hands-on classes (science, engineering, computer science, and other technical or vocational subjects) Tactile learner (prefers to write down information to be learned or to manipulate materials physically)
AFTER READING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD KNOW: What you need to know about reading and studying The keys to studying college textbooks What comprehension monitoring is and why it is important What the SQ3R study system is How you can adjust your reading rate What you need to do to be successful in college The importance of setting goals What learning styles are