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COMPOST SANITATION David Crohn University of California, Riverside.

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Presentation on theme: "COMPOST SANITATION David Crohn University of California, Riverside."— Presentation transcript:

1 COMPOST SANITATION David Crohn University of California, Riverside

2 Thermophilic composting

3 Compost microorganisms Illustrations:

4 Aerobic processes Microbes, Carbon, & Oxygen Carbon Dioxide, Water, Compost, &Heat

5 Thermophilic composting  Microbes tend to specialize in the temperatures they prefer.  In California soils and in our bodies mesophiles are most abundant. Pathogens are mesophiles.  Between 110°F and 155°F, thermophiles dominate.  Above about 160°F dieoff begins.  Reliable pathogen kill occurs above 131°F.  Heat greatly accelerates microbial efficiency.

6 Documented outbreaks, CSPI 2006

7 September 14, 2006  E. coli O157:H7 outbreak announced Nationwide recall of produce packed by Natural Selection Foods More than 200 illnesses Over 100 hospitalized 31 suffer hemolytic uremic syndrome (acute kidney disease) 3 deaths Market drop Spinach 41% - $77,000,000 Salad products 8% Linked to an August 14 spinach harvest in San Benito County A spinach farm located on a cattle ranch The crop was grown organically, but marketed as conventional Had received pelletized chicken compost which received intense scrutiny

8 E. coli O157:H7 victims Kyle Algood, age 2 NY Times

9 Compost? Wildlife? Water? Cal Dept Health Services and FDA (March 2007): Compost ruled out

10 Pathogenic E. coli  E. coli O157:H7  waterborne and foodborne outbreaks documented  bloody diarrhea  may cause acute kidney failure, death  Can survive if reintroduced into compost  Low infectious dose  Other pathogenic E. coli  “traveler’s diarrhea”  transmitted by contaminated food, water  may be minor to severe

11 November 3, 2006  FDA announces that fresh tomatoes served in restaurants had sickened 183 people in 23 states with Salmonella typhimurium  One of four such outbreaks during the period

12 Salmonella  causes diarrhea, fever, cramps hours after infection  illness lasts 4-7 days  can also cause typhoid fever  40,000 cases reported annually; 1000 deaths annually  0.1% population excretes Salmonella at a given time  most common bacterial pathogen in wastewater  primarily foodborne (beef, poultry, milk, eggs), but also transmitted by water Arrows indicate Salmonella cells invading pig epithelium

13 Shigella  bacteria  causes diarrhea (often bloody), fever, cramps hours after infection  illness lasts 5 -7 days  infect only humans  18,000 cases reported annually  primarily transmitted by direct contact with infected individual  also transmitted by contaminated food, water, recreation  low infectious dose (~10 organisms) Macrophage infected with Shigella

14 Giardia  protozoan parasite  causes diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea for 4-6 weeks  1-2 week incubation period  transmitted by contaminated food/water  can be transmitted from animals to humans  antibiotics are available

15 Cryptosporidium  protozoan parasite  causes diarrhea, abdominal cramps, slight fever for 1 week  2-10 day incubation period  transmitted by contaminated food/water, person-person  can be transmitted from animals to humans  no antibiotics are available  can cause very severe illness in individuals with weakened immune systems

16 Ascaris  Human roundworm  8-12 week incubation period  causes digestive and nutritional problems, abdominal pain

17 Concentrations of Pathogens in Stools of Infected Individuals from Gerba, 1995

18 Survival in the Environment Depends on:  type of microorganism Parasites>viruses> bacteria  temperature

19 Survival of Microorganisms in the Environment

20 Title 14 – Sampling – 8 weeks  Glassy winged sharpshooter eggs, Olive fruit fly larvae  Compost sampling  No pests lasted more than 14 d  No pests survive more than 4 d at the 30 and 100 cm depths. Neither of the pests survived 100 cm after 2 d.  Armillaria mellea, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans  S. sclerotiorum survived at the pile surface and at 10, 30, and 100 cm within the pile for the entire 8 weeks in both fresh green waste (FGW) and aged green waste (AGW).  A. mellea and T. semipenetrans did not survive more than 2 days in FGW,  P. cinnamomi persisted for over 21 days in FGW.

21 GAP Metrics – Industry standard  “Do not use crop treatments that contain raw manure for lettuce or leafy green produce.”  “Verify that the time and temperature process…”  “Maximize the time interval between the crop treatment application and time to harvest.”  “Segregate equipment used for crop treatment applications or use effective means of equipment sanitation before subsequent use.” June 2007

22 Precautionary Principal  Buyer’s attorneys and insurance companies hold influence  “Is it possible for compost to vector disease?”  “Is compost absolutely necessary to grow crops?”  “That’s good. One less thing.”

23 Title 14 - Sampling  Compost sampling  1 composite sample for each 5000 cu yd  Composite of 12 samples from different depths  Fecal coliforms (<1000 MPN/dry g)  Salmonella (<3 MPN/4 g)

24 Title 14 - Temperature  Turned windrow – 5 turns over 14 days at 55ºC  Monitored at 12 – 24”  Static pile – 3 days at 55ºC with 6 – 12” insulation  Monitored at 12 – 18”  Daily readings for every 120’ or 200 cu yds

25 GAP Metrics – Industry standard  Follow CIWMB requirements for compost process  Requires E. coli O157:H7 analysis

26 Safety  Long track record  Not controversial, but regularly investigated  Used all over the world without problems  Samples do occasionally reveal pathogens  Best available alternative  Cross-contamination  Acute vs. chronic concern

27 The Seven HACCP Principals (1) Assess hazards (2) Identify reliable safety measures (Critical Control Points) (3) Assign acceptable performance parameters (critical limits) (4) Monitor, (5) Maintain, (6) Verify, and (7) Document program performance.

28 Critical Control Point (CCP) Identification  CCPs are  opportunities to eliminate a significant hazard  Must be both  essential and  effective

29 Urban Yardwaste is a blend of everything green that is disposed of.  Yardwaste recycling is mandated  Dead plants are disposed of in yardwaste  Pathogens reside in dead plants  Composting is not necessarily a part of yardwaste recycling  Pathogen spread in yardwaste products is a concern.

30 Loading bags with mulch

31 Arranging bags for the pull dates

32 Piles are covered with yardwastes

33 Armillaria mellea, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus nematode)


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