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Jeanette A. Thurston-Enriquez

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1 Jeanette A. Thurston-Enriquez
Manure-borne Pathogens: Impact of Animal Agriculture on Microbial Water Quality Jeanette A. Thurston-Enriquez USDA-ARS

2 Livestock Manure Increase in CAFOs 500 million tons/year in U.S.
26 million tons/yr in NE

3 Public Health and Animal Waste
Animal waste agents Infectious bacteria, viruses, protozoa Chemical nutrients, endocrine disrupters, antimicrobials

4 Manure-borne Pathogens of Concern
Protozoan Parasites Pathogenic Bacteria Fungi Viruses Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

5 In order to determine the human health impact of manure-borne pathogens we need to evaluate:
Occurrence Survival/Persistence Dissemination/Transport Manure, Manure Management Systems, & Surrounding Environment: Water, Air, Soil

6 Other Health-Related Microorganisms
Fecal Indicator Microorganisms What? Traditionally, bacteria of fecal origin Total and fecal coliforms Escherichia coli Why? Indicators of fecal contamination Recreational and drinking water quality regulations Faster, cheaper, easier detection

7 Waterborne Disease in the U.S.
12-20 outbreaks/yr x higher ~900,000 cases of waterborne microbial infections Up to 900 deaths >70% in >55 yrs

8 Water Sources Affecting Public Health
Drinking Recreational Irrigation Foodborne

9 Contamination Routes RUNOFF Wildlife Agriculture Groundwater Urban and
Well head impacts Urban and storm water WWTP overflow Septic tank leakage Agriculture Recreation Wildlife Groundwater Infiltration percolation Discharge

10 Manure Dissemination Land application Aerosol generation
Leakage or overflow from storage lagoons or treatment ponds Runoff from feed yards, manure-applied land, pasture land, etc.

11 Well head impacts

12 Outbreak Source: Animal Ag.
Walkerton, 2001 Land-applied cattle manure Agricultural runoff to groundwater supply Escherichia coli O157:H7 & Campylobacter >2000 cases 7 fatalities

13 Contributing Factors for Environmental Persistence and Transmission of Enteric Pathogens
High numbers shed in feces Increased survival Low infectious dose Increased resistance to disinfection/treatment Multiple routes of transmission Animal and human infections

14 Potential Routes of Human Exposure to Pathogens
Waterborne Drinking and recreational water Foodborne (can be related to waterborne) Direct contact, irrigation water, ingestion of contaminated produce Direct Contact Aerosol Transmission Transport to water supplies or food crops Inhalation of aerosols Contact

15 Possible Pathogen Transmission by Aerosols
Direct transmission or deposition onto food crops, fomites, or water Biosolids Land Application Livestock Spray Irrigation

16 Barriers Against Waterborne Disease
Drinking water and wastewater treatment Disinfection & Filtration Surface water monitoring/Source water protection Point-of-use devices—disinfect/filter Protection of recreational waters Contaminant monitoring Designation of specific uses

17 Agriculture: Limiting Microbial Transport

18 Limiting Microbial Transport: Manure Storage & Treatment
Holding Ponds & Lagoons Compost

19 Limiting Microbial Transport: Aerosols
Land application Pen scraping Top spray vs. drop spray Keep tractor speed low; scrape moist soil Low wind speed Wind direction

20 Limiting Microbial Transport: Vegetated Filter Strips

21 Microbial Reduction Prior to Land Application: Constructed Wetlands
Alternative waste management and treatment technology Bacterial reduction: >80 % (prior to plant establishment) Protozoan parasite reduction: >60 % (prior to plant establishment)

22 Manure-borne Pathogen Information Gaps
Environmental Loading Environmental Fate Treatment Effectiveness Alternative Treatments/Tech. Detection Methods Viability Sensitivity Specificity Emerging Pathogens **Risk Assessments Requires above information


24 Questions/Comments?

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