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Manure-borne Pathogens: Impact of Animal Agriculture on Microbial Water Quality Jeanette A. Thurston-Enriquez USDA-ARS.

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Presentation on theme: "Manure-borne Pathogens: Impact of Animal Agriculture on Microbial Water Quality Jeanette A. Thurston-Enriquez USDA-ARS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Manure-borne Pathogens: Impact of Animal Agriculture on Microbial Water Quality Jeanette A. Thurston-Enriquez USDA-ARS

2 Increase in CAFOs 500 million tons/year in U.S. 26 million tons/yr in NE Livestock Manure

3 Public Health and Animal Waste Animal waste agents –Infectious bacteria, viruses, protozoa –Chemical nutrients, endocrine disrupters, antimicrobials

4 Manure-borne Pathogens of Concern Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Protozoan Parasites Pathogenic Bacteria Viruses Fungi

5 In order to determine the human health impact of manure-borne pathogens we need to evaluate: Occurrence Survival/Persistence Dissemination/Transport Manure, Manure Management Systems, & Surrounding Environment: Water, Air, Soil

6 Other Health-Related Microorganisms Fecal Indicator Microorganisms –What? Traditionally, bacteria of fecal origin –Total and fecal coliforms –Escherichia coli –Why? Indicators of fecal contamination Recreational and drinking water quality regulations Faster, cheaper, easier detection

7 Waterborne Disease in the U.S. 12-20 outbreaks/yr –10-100 x higher ~900,000 cases of waterborne microbial infections Up to 900 deaths >70% in >55 yrs

8 Recreational Foodborne Drinking Irrigation Water Sources Affecting Public Health

9 RUNOFF Contamination Routes Well head impacts Urban and storm water WWTP overflow Septic tank leakage Agriculture Recreation Wildlife Groundwater Infiltration percolation Discharge

10 Manure Dissemination Land application Aerosol generation Leakage or overflow from storage lagoons or treatment ponds Runoff from feed yards, manure- applied land, pasture land, etc.

11 Well head impacts

12 Outbreak Source: Animal Ag. Walkerton, 2001 –Land-applied cattle manure –Agricultural runoff to groundwater supply –Escherichia coli O157:H7 & Campylobacter –>2000 cases –7 fatalities

13 Contributing Factors for Environmental Persistence and Transmission of Enteric Pathogens High numbers shed in feces Increased survival Low infectious dose Increased resistance to disinfection/treatment Multiple routes of transmission Animal and human infections

14 Potential Routes of Human Exposure to Pathogens –Waterborne Drinking and recreational water –Foodborne (can be related to waterborne) Direct contact, irrigation water, ingestion of contaminated produce –Direct Contact –Aerosol Transmission Transport to water supplies or food crops Inhalation of aerosols Contact

15 Possible Pathogen Transmission by Aerosols Direct transmission or deposition onto food crops, fomites, or water Livestock Spray Irrigation Biosolids Land Application

16 Barriers Against Waterborne Disease Drinking water and wastewater treatment –Disinfection & Filtration Surface water monitoring/Source water protection Point-of-use devices—disinfect/filter Protection of recreational waters Contaminant monitoring Designation of specific uses

17 Agriculture: Limiting Microbial Transport

18 Limiting Microbial Transport: Manure Storage & Treatment Compost Holding Ponds & Lagoons

19 Limiting Microbial Transport: Aerosols Top spray vs. drop spray Keep tractor speed low; scrape moist soil Low wind speed Wind direction Pen scraping Land application

20 Limiting Microbial Transport: Vegetated Filter Strips

21 Microbial Reduction Prior to Land Application: Constructed Wetlands Alternative waste management and treatment technology Bacterial reduction: >80 % (prior to plant establishment) Protozoan parasite reduction: >60 % (prior to plant establishment)

22 Manure-borne Pathogen Information Gaps Environmental Loading Environmental Fate Treatment Effectiveness Alternative Treatments/Tech. Detection Methods –Viability –Sensitivity –Specificity Emerging Pathogens **Risk Assessments –Requires above information

23

24 Questions/Comments?


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