Potential Effects of Population Growth Two popular theories… Malthusian Theory: A population grows exponentially, while food production is linear. With this pattern, in the future there will no longer be enough food to sustain the population. Demographic Transition Theory: A country will go from high to low birth and death rates as they develop more sophisticated systems for education, industrialization and urbanization.
Table 2. Number of Ideal Children Reported in Survey Compared to Actual Total Fertility Rate Ideal Number of Children
Peru’s Diverse Population 45% Amerindian and 37% Mestizo 81.3% of the population is Roman Catholic National Languages: Spanish and Quechua – 84.1% of the population speaks Spanish – 13% of the population speaks Quechua
Contraceptive Methods o Modern Methods: Contraceptive pill Intra-uterine device Injection Condoms Sterilization Norplant Emergency pill o Traditional Methods: Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Folk methods
Table 3. By Education Level Table 4. By Location Total Fertility Rate (children/woman)
Table 5. By Education Level Table 6. By Location Knowledge of at Least One Method of Contraceptive (by percentage)
Table 7. By Education level Table 8. By Location Actual Use of at Least One Method of Contraception (by percentage)
Table 9. By Education Level Table 10. By Location Proportion of Modern to Traditional Methods of Women Using at Least One Contraceptive
Summary of Survey Results Total fertility rate is lower among women with high levels of education and living in urban areas. These women are also more likely to know about and use contraceptive methods. The contraceptive method they choose is more likely to be a modern method.
The Government and the Catholic Church Both institutions have had influence on the policy and perception of contraceptives to the Peruvian people throughout their history.
Government 1963-1968 President Fernando Belaúnde Terry 1964|Created the Center of Population and Development (CEPD) 1967|Association of Family Protection (APPF) 1970|Peru Demographic Report
Catholic Church 1963-1968 1930|Pope Pius XI’s encyclical Casti Connubii 1966|Responsible Parenthood Program in the Barriadas of Lima 1967|Program spread to multiple parishes
Catholic Church 1963-1968 Jul. 1968|Pope Paul VI encyclical De Humanae Vitae “Project for Conjugal and Family Promotion in Peripheral Neighborhoods” Sept. 1968|Latin American Episcopal Conference of Catholic Bishops
Government 1968-1975 General Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado 1971|National Development plan did not include family planning 1975|APPF network completely shut down
Catholic Church 1968-1975 Continuation of the Project for Conjugal and Family Promotion in Peripheral Neighborhoods 1974|Family and Population written by Catholic Bishops of Peru
Government 1975-1980 General Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerruti 1976| Guidelines of Population Politics “With respect to fertility, the government recognizes that the final decision and the direct responsibility fall to the parents of the family.”
Catholic Church 1975 - 1980 Catholic Bishops influence government policy of family planning The project for Conjugal and Family Promotion in Peripheral Neighborhoods begins to lose funding
Government 1980 - 1985 President Fernando Belaunde Terry Nov. 1980|National Population Council Dec. 1980|Family Planning Rules 1983|The government provides Family Planning Services
Government 1990 - 2000 Alberto Ken’ya Fujimori 1991-1995|National Population Program 1995|Conference on population and development 1995|Sterilization legalized
Catholic Church Response Challenged Fujimori’s sex education programs in schools Provided responsible parenthood programs
Target Population “The fertility rate among poor women is 6.9 children – they are poor and are producing more poor people. The president is aware that the government cannot fight poverty without reducing poor people’s fertility. Thus, demographic goals are a combination of the population’s right to access family planning and the government’s anti-poverty strategy.” - Program manager at the Ministry of Health, 1998
Sterilizations Ministry of Health estimates that at least 277,793 women were sterilized during Fujimori’s sterilization campaign Figure 5. Tubal Ligations Performed by the Ministry of Health of Peru from 1993 to 2000 Ligations Year
Catholic Church Response Accused Fujimori of a sterilization agenda against the indigenous population Cardinal Augusto Vargas expressed concerns publically on television
Coerced into sterilization “We were required to perform a certain number of sterilizations each month. This was obligatory and if we did not comply, we were fired. Many providers did not inform women that they were going to be sterilized – they told them the procedure was something else. But I felt this was wrong. I preferred to offer women a bag of rice to convince them to accept the procedure and explained to them beforehand what was going to happen.” - Doctor who formerly worked for the Ministry of Health
Coerced into Sterilization “These women are ignorant. We just bribed them; they consented to sterilization if we gave them money for their basic needs.” - Doctor who formerly worked for the Ministry of Health
Coerced into Sterilizations Of 157 cases of sterilization, a consent form was filled out correctly only 11 times and in 112 cases no consent procedure was even presented. 16 deaths were uncovered as a result of poorly executed sterilization procedures.
The Downfall of the Family-Planning Program Fujimori lost foreign support and funding for the Family-Planning Program 1998-2002|National Population Plan Ministry of Promotion for Women and Human Development
Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission Investigated Fujimori’s alleged crimes against humanity between 1980 and 2000 68,841 people were “disappeared” during this time. Of these, 90% were from the poorest regions of the country and over 70% were native Quechua speakers Sterilizations were not mentioned in the Commissions final report
Genocide? Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in 1948 by the United Nations Article 1 The Contracting Parties confirm that genocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent and to punish. Article 2 In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. (Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. United Nations. 1948)
Still Demanding Justice Women for the Broad Women’s Movement traveled from Cuzco to Lima in protest, demanding compensation for their suffering in June 2001.
Government 2001-2006 President Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique 2001|The 5-year Sectorial Strategy Plan included universal healthcare Appointed two conservative Ministers of Health who restricted the supply of information and resources of contraception
Consequences of Conservative Stance Between 2002-2003, only 34% of workers stated that contraceptive supply was continuous. In 2003-2004, the number had dropped to 6% Use of artificial contraceptives dropped by 26% between 2002 and 2004
Table 9. By Education Level Table 10. By Location Proportion of Modern to Traditional Methods of Women Using at Least One Contraceptive
Abortion Problems Complications from unsuccessful abortions treated by the Ministry of Health: 2000| 35,000 2001| 35,000 2002| 38,851 2003| 41,993
Government 2006 – 2011 President Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Peréz Addressed the decline of contraceptive use Created two programs: Conditional cash transfers Social insurance programs
Conclusion While the TFR in Peru has been steadily decreasing, it is important to remember that the TFR is an average and is not homogeneous throughout the population. The socio- economic conditions of different populations affects is directly relate to the TFR as well as the actions of the Catholic Church. It is important to look at all of these aspects when investigating the situation of the country.
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