Presentation on theme: "World Regional Geography February 24, 2010 Reading: Marston Chapter 5 Pages 210-238, 243-260 Goode’s World Atlas Pages 225-230 This Week: Map Quiz #2:"— Presentation transcript:
World Regional Geography February 24, 2010 Reading: Marston Chapter 5 Pages 210-238, 243-260 Goode’s World Atlas Pages 225-230 This Week: Map Quiz #2: Africa Next Week: Midterm Exam Introduction – North Africa & The Middle East Rwanda, following the 1994 genocide
Population Characteristics RegionPopulation(Millions) Birth Rate Death Rate Natural Increase (%) Net Migration Rate Projected Pop. Change (2050) West Africa 29740142.7+110% East Africa 31340132.6+118% Central Africa 12542142.80+144% Southern Africa 5824150.93+17% Differences between Southern Africa and the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa Impact of HIV/AIDS Stage of development / demographic transition
Population Characteristics RegionIMRTFR % Pop <15 % Pop >65 Life Expectancy MaleFemale West Africa 805.5443515052 East Africa 765.4443515052 Central Africa 956.1453514952 Southern Africa 482.8335525053 Region HIV/AIDS % % Urban GNI PPP (US$) West Africa 2.5421,600 East Africa 5.6221,030 Central Africa 2.5411,650 Southern Africa 18.5569,380
Sub-Saharan African Diaspora Out of Africa To Europe Brain drain Within Africa Search for work Circular migrations Refugees 4.5 million 1/3 of world total
Religion & Language Religion Animistic Traditional beliefs Christianity European missionaries Colonialism Islam North Africa / East Coast Traders Languages 800 living languages 40 spoken by 1 million+
Importance of family Respect for elders. Reverence for ancestors. Large families valued. Land Tenure Communal as opposed to individual ownership. Inheritance from the past, responsibility to the future. Music, art, and storytelling Artistic expression linked to reverence for elders and educating the young. Worldwide influence.Culture
Sub-Saharan Africa in the World- System 2 million years ago: Origin of humans 5,000 years ago: Trading societies 500 years ago: European exploration and economic colonialism begins 1882 – 1960s: European political colonialism 1960 – 1990: Independence
Colonialism The system by which one country extends its political control to another territory to economically exploit the human and natural resources of the territory. 1483: Portuguese establish first European colony in Northern Angola. Coastal ports and scattered inland trading posts. Inland development Southern Africa Europeans lacked immunity to native diseases.
Slavery By 1700 nearly 50,000 slaves traded annually. 9 million slaves sent to Americas between 1600 and 1870. Approximately 1.5 million died en-route.
Scramble for Africa Post-1950 increased interest in Africa. Discovery and desire for resources. Improvements in treating disease. Berlin Conference 13 European countries meet to divide up Africa. No African representation. No respect for existing cultural or ethnic boundaries.
Colonial Legacy Reoriented economies Infrastructure geared for export, internal linkages weak. Change in crops Change in land tenure Varying forms of colonial control Languages and financial systems.
Independence 1957 through 1990 Transitions Peaceful and violent Involvement of colonial power varied by country Colonial borders became national borders. Conflict resulting from poorly drawn borders
Genocide Article 2 of the 1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide defines genocide as:United NationsConvention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide Any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy a national, ethnical, racial or religious group nationalethnicalracialreligious Killing members of the group. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group. Deliberately inflicting on the group living conditions designed to bring about its physical destruction. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
Genocide in Rwanda Belgian colony until 1961 Tutsi minority favored over. Hutu majority. Independence Hutu majority seizes control. Resentment and violence towards Tutsis, many flea. 1990-1993 Civil War Tutsis attempting to regain some power (RPF). 1994 President killed Hutus begin massacre of Tutsis and moderate Hutus. 800,000 die in 100 days. Post-genocide many Hutus flea fearing retribution.