Presentation on theme: "The Information Society: Measuring the SMEs and the Digital Divide"— Presentation transcript:
1The Information Society: Measuring the SMEs and the Digital Divide Fabiola RiccardiniNational Statistical Institute of ItalyUNCTAD Expert Meeting - Measuring Electronic Commerce – Geneva September 2003
2Points of presentation Policy needsDefinition, European/OECD and Italian Approach to Information SocietyMeasuring the SMEsMeasuring the Digital Divide: why, whatNational measurement: ItalyConclusions
3Policy needsPolicies for business, households and government in using ICTsSMEs and very small enterprisesEconomic Sectors policyInfrastructure, in particular broadbandE-governmentE-contentTerritorial development policyAgreements-protocols between the National Statistical Office with Ministry of Innovation and Ministry of Economy and under definition with Ministry of Production Activities for building up data bases on information society for monitoring policies
4Defining Information Society OECD: information economy + social aspects = information societyEuropean Definition: information society is connected to ICT, knowledge society, innovation and R&D, social aspects (education, labour market, health…) and globalization
5Italian Approach to Information Society: what and how to measure Indicators on:ICT usageICT sectorAudiovisualsE-commerceE-businessHouseholds/individuals statisticse-public sector and e-government statisticsMicro and macro analysisDigital divideQualitative and quantitative analysisSources:Most of the indicators derived from official statistics: integrated databases, surveys and administrative sourcesExisting surveys:New surveys
6Surveying the SMEs: Why SMEs (1-250 empld) in Europe are 80 % of the total business sector enterprises in In Italy SMEs are 99 % of the total business sector enterprises (graph). Micro enterprises (1-9 empld) are 90%SMEs purchase more than sell over the netSMEs in networking along the same product value chain or have same scope economiesSMEs as specialized intermediaries in e-commerce, ISP, telecommunication services…..
7Surveying SMEs in Italy using SBS Regulation framework Description of the survey and questionnaireResultsAnalysis
8Description of the SME survey (2000 year) Name of sourceSample survey on small and medium enterprises for enterprises with 1-99 persons employed.Legal basisThe survey is enforced by the National Statistical Program included in Decree 322/89.Obligation on units to provide dataDecree 322/89 establishes that all public bodies and organisations, as well as private organisations and individuals, are under obligation to provide, upon request, all data and information needed and programmed by law.Register on which the source is basedA.S.I.A. register (Archivio Statistico delle Imprese Attive) is used. It is a statistical Business Register resulting from the logical and physical combination of data resident in statistical and administrative sources (Tax Register, Register of Enterprises and Local Units provided by the Chambers of Commerce, Social Security Register, Work Accident Insurance Register, Register of the Electric Power Board) treated with statistical methodologies.Population coverageActivities coveredThe survey covers the following economic activities according to the Nace rev.1:Sections C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J (division 67), K, M, N and O (divisions 90, 92 and 93).Geographical area coveredThe survey covers all of Italy, i.e. 21 administrative regions.Size class coveredThe survey covers enterprises with 1-99 persons employed.
9Description of the SME survey (2000 year) Observation unit(s): EnterpriseSummary list of variables : The economic variables covered in the survey are essentially those that contribute to estimate the value added, the structure of the employment, the personnel cost, the investments and others economic variables. Besides the questionnaire is composed of a few sheets multipurpose with qualitative questions about relation between enterprises, use of ICT (personal computer use, access to the web, e-commerce), research and development activities, innovations, research personnel and vocational training.Time span covered by data: The reference period is the calendar year. In cases where the accounting year of an enterprise is based on a 12 month period other than the calendar year then it provides the data requested with reference to results for the year closed before June 1st of the year following the reference year.Primary data collection methodMedia: Postal questionnaireTimetable of data collection: Data collection is started 6 months after the end of the reference period and the survey is closed 18 months after the end of the reference period.Criteria for stratification: Economic activity, persons employed size classes and geographical area.Threshold values and sample size:Division of economic activity size classes10-45; 67, 80, 85, 90, 91, ; 10‑19; 20‑49; 50‑99; 2-4; 5-9; 10-19; 20-49; 50‑9955; 60-64; ; 5-9; 10-19; 20-49; 50‑99Geographical area: 21 administrative regionsThe sample covered: 121,137 enterprises in respect of a total population of 4,134,000 enterprises.
10Description of the SME survey (2000 year) Response rate71,500 questionnaires were returned. This is a response rate of approximately 59,0%.Frequency of data collection or list of recent reference yearsThe survey is carried out yearly.Production of resultsEstimates for non-responseThe methodology used for extrapolate the data of the survey to the population (in terms of enterprises and persons employed) is based on bound weighted estimator.
11Module on ICT usage SECTION. 8 - Other information Information and communication technologies 30/6/20018.1 Does your enterprise use at least a personal computer or a data processing system ? YES NO8.2 Does your enterprise use (only if open to external servers) ? YES NO8.3 Does your company have a web site or one or more web page? YES NOElectronic commercepurchases and sales of assets or services that occur through one of the networks using Internet Protocol (www, Extranet on Internet, EDI on Internet, mobile phone with access to Internet) and over other computer-mediated networks other than Internet (EDI, interactive telephone systems). Goods and services are ordered over those networks directly by enterprise, but the payment and the delivery of the good or service may be conducted on or off-line. Orders received via telephone, facsimile and non- interactive s are not counted as electronic commerce.-- Has your enterprise purchased products/services via Internet in 2000 (purchases on line) or during the first semester of 2001 ?2000: YES NO : (January-June): YES NOIf yes, in reference to year 2000 please provide an estimate, in percentage, of the total value of on line purchases on total purchases of goods and servicessect. 1): |__|__|__| %Has the enterprise received orders via Internet during 2000 and during the first semester of 2001 ? 2000: YES NO : (January-June): YES NOIf yes, in reference to year 2000 please provide an estimate, in percentage, of the on line turnover on total turnover: |__|__|__| %
12Some results from the SME survey ICT usage of enterprises with less than 100 employed at 30/6/2001% of enterprises with:size classesTOTAt least one PC or computingsystem ,7 76, , , , ,7At least one address , , , , , ,5A web site or a page on Internet 5, , , , , ,3
13Some results from the SME survey ICT usage of enterprises with less than 100 employed at 30/6/2001% of enterprises with:Manufact. Construct. Trade Other services TOTAt least one PC or computingsystem , , , , ,7At least one address , , , , ,5A web site or a page on Internet 16, , , , ,3
14Some results from the SME survey Enterprises with less than 10 employed with ICTs by size and economic classes at 30/6/2001PC add. Web pagesManufactoring ,8 78, , , , ,5Construction ,4 67, , , , ,7Trade and Hotel ,1 73, , , , ,5Other Services ,9 82, , , , ,4TOTAL ,7 76, , , , ,1
15Some results from the SME survey and ICT usage on business survey
16Some results from the SME survey and ICT usage survey
17Micro analysis: ICT usage and business performance. Some results Degree of firms computing with best economic performance with respect to other firms by size and economic classes and performance indicator. Year 2000, firms with less than 10 employedManufact Trade Other servicesemployment growthPersonal computer ,7 4, ,3 11, , ,15,2 5, ,0 13, , ,3Web site ,8 3, ,2 5, , ,1productivityp.c ,4 14, , , , ,27,9 16, , , , ,3Web site , , , , , ,8profitabilityp.c , , , , , ,7-0, , , , , ,6Web site , , , , , ,8
18Advantages in using SBS Regulation framework Reduce business statistical burdenEconomic data, structural data in the same framework of technological data and other factors which affects business competitivenessReduce the underestimation of e-commerce volumeMicro analysis: ICT usage and business performanceComplement the knowledge of the all economyAnalyzing digital divide
19Analysis of digital divide The term digital divide refers to the disparity in accessing to the technologies and resources of the information and communication. The digitalization of the economy and the society may produce differences and gaps amongst individuals, households, businesses, and geographic areas, rich and poor countries.it is important to have available measures on the dimensions of the digital divide. For example: the concentration ratioMeasuring the digital divide involves a lot of criteria that concern infrastructures access, human capabilities, knowledge and education, IT expertise, size and location of business. Also the way in which the technological disparity is reckoned can vary in different perspectives, all having a reasonable fundament.The main framework for developing digital divide indicators is organized as follows:Digital divide definition;International measurement;National measurementOn who: households, enterprises, governmentsMeasuresWhy we need this ?:International harmonizationNational measurement with same methods
20International measurement main current ICT international variables:Infrastructure readiness, that is:Fixed teledensity;Mobile teledensity;Personal computer density;Internet host density;Secure servers density.Socio-economic enablers to use:Internet access cost;Levels of education;Computer or digital literacy;ICT penetration: computer and other ICT technologies diffusion on households, business and government;Intensity indicators: how much electronic commerce, which sectors, size classes or local areas
21National measurement Variables: Access issue: individuals, households, rural and urban areas, ICT skills, age, gender, etc.;Business issue: use of ICTs in the firms, company size and structure, public/private, sectors, ICT skills shortage, local areas etc;Government issue: e-government, ICT usage by public employees, on line public services, ICT equipment in the public administration, etc.
22National Measurement: Italy Households and individuals digital divide
23National Measurement: Italy Business digital divide: concentration ratio,2000 year.Natio.SectorSizeTerritor.MeanDivideDivideDivideDiff.Extranet41,010,43,95,7EDI47,410,72,97,6Broadband connect.44,911,32,33,1on-line sales43,311,70,63,6
24National Measurement: Business digital divide Results:Index higher on sectors compared with size class and macro territorial areas…. Much divide among enterprises across sectors instead of size and location of enterprisesHigh divide across sectors …. Could be a sign of low possibility to enlarge relationships of enterprises already late with respect to othersDo the use of ICTs leaves to the location of enterprises not discriminatory any more? What is it happening to the industrial districts?We need much more detailed data for understanding better the role of ICTs as a possibility to enlarge the relationships among enterprises
25ConclusionMeasurement of SMEs, in all their size classes even micro enterprises, is essential for understanding the different usage of ICT by businessDD proposed could have different applications for cross countries comparisons and for national analysis. The Gini index is useful for estimating the evolutive, regressive or stationary tendency of DD over time. The index shows the disparity in accessing and using the ICTsSelect relevant and appropriate variables to measure DD. Many criteria and measures can be used. Data availability and comparability of the series. Individuals/households, business, governments and other social or institutional groupsInternational measurement of DD ……. OECD publications and further activitiesNational measurement of SMEs and DD ……ISTAT publications and papersWe need much more official statistics over time, much more co-operation for a common analysis, quality of data